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Contents Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics: Language Skills Practice USING THIS WORKBOOK ................................................viii

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Chapter 1 PARTS OF SPEECH OVERVIEW: IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTION Common, Proper, Concrete, and Abstract Nouns ....1 Collective and Compound Nouns ................................2 Pronouns and Antecedents ............................................3 Personal, Reflexive, and Intensive Pronouns..............4 Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Relative Pronouns........................................................................5 Indefinite Pronouns..........................................................6 Adjectives and the Words They Modify ......................7 Adjective or Pronoun? ....................................................8 Adjective or Noun? ..........................................................9 Main Verbs and Helping Verbs....................................10 Action Verbs ....................................................................11 Linking Verbs ..................................................................12 Transitive and Intransitive Verbs ................................13 Adverbs and the Words They Modify ......................14 Noun or Adverb?............................................................15 The Preposition ..............................................................16 Adverb or Preposition? ................................................17 The Conjunction..............................................................18 The Interjection................................................................19 Determining Parts of Speech........................................20 REVIEW A: Parts of Speech ............................................21 REVIEW B: Parts of Speech..............................................22 REVIEW C: Parts of Speech ............................................23

Chapter 2 THE PARTS OF A SENTENCE: SUBJECT, PREDICATE, COMPLEMENT Sentences and Sentence Fragments ............................24 Subjects and Predicates..................................................25 Simple and Complete Subjects ....................................26 Simple and Complete Predicates ................................27 Complete and Simple Subjects and Predicates ........28 Compound Subjects and Verbs A................................29 Compound Subjects and Verbs B ................................30 Finding Subjects in Sentences ......................................31 Complements ..................................................................32 Direct Objects ..................................................................33

Indirect Objects................................................................34 Objective Complements ................................................35 Complements ..................................................................36 Predicate Nominatives ..................................................37 Predicate Adjectives ......................................................38 Predicate Nominatives and Adjectives ......................39 Parts of a Sentence..........................................................40 REVIEW A: Fragments and Complete Sentences........41 REVIEW B: Sentence Parts ..............................................42 REVIEW C: Sentence Parts ..............................................43 REVIEW D: Sentence Parts ..............................................44

Chapter 3 THE PHRASE: KINDS OF PHRASES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS Identifying Phrases ........................................................45 Prepositional Phrases ....................................................46 The Adjective Phrase......................................................47 The Adverb Phrase ........................................................48 Identifying Adjective and Adverb Phrases ..............49 The Participle ..................................................................50 The Participial Phrase ....................................................51 Participles and Participial Phrases ..............................52 The Gerund ......................................................................53 The Gerund Phrase ........................................................54 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases......................................55 Identifying Participial and Gerund Phrases..............56 The Infinitive ..................................................................57 The Infinitive Phrase ......................................................58 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases ................................59 Identifying Prepositional and Verbal Phrases ..........60 The Appositive ................................................................61 The Appositive Phrase ..................................................62 Appositives and Appositive Phrases..........................63 REVIEW A: Phrases ..........................................................64 REVIEW B: Phrases ..........................................................65 REVIEW C: Phrases ..........................................................66

Chapter 4 THE CLAUSE: INDEPENDENT AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES, SENTENCE STRUCTURE Identifying Clauses ........................................................67 The Independent Clause ..............................................68 The Subordinate Clause ................................................69

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Contents The Adjective Clause ....................................................71 Relative Pronouns ..........................................................72 Essential and Nonessential Clauses............................73 The Noun Clause............................................................74 The Adverb Clause ........................................................75 Subordinating Conjunctions ........................................76 The Elliptical Clause ......................................................77 Identifying Adjective and Adverb Clauses ..............78 Identifying and Classifying Subordinate Clauses A ....................................................................79 Identifying and Classifying Subordinate Clauses B ....................................................................80 Sentences Classified According to Structure ............81 Sentences Classified According to Purpose ..............82 REVIEW A: Clauses ..........................................................83 REVIEW B: Clauses ..........................................................84 REVIEW C: Sentences Classified According to Structure ......................................................................85 REVIEW D: Sentences Classified According to Purpose........................................................................86

Chapter 5 AGREEMENT: SUBJECT AND VERB, PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT Number ............................................................................87 Subject-Verb Agreement A............................................88 Subject-Verb Agreement B ............................................89 Subject-Verb Agreement: Indefinite Pronouns A ................................................................90 Subject-Verb Agreement: Indefinite Pronouns B..................................................................91 Agreement with Compound Subjects A....................92 Agreement with Compound Subjects B ....................93 Special Problems in Subject-Verb Agreement A ......94 Special Problems in Subject-Verb Agreement B ......95 Special Problems in Subject-Verb Agreement C ......96 Special Problems in Subject-Verb Agreement D ......97 Special Problems in Subject-Verb Agreement E ......98 Special Problems in Subject-Verb Agreement F........99 Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent A..............100 Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent B ..............101 Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent C..............102 Special Problems in Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement A ............................................................103

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Special Problems in Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement B ............................................................104 Special Problems in Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement C ............................................................105 Special Problems in Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement D ............................................................106 REVIEW A: Subject-Verb Agreement ..........................107 REVIEW B: Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement............108 REVIEW C: Agreement ..................................................109 REVIEW D: Agreement ..................................................110

Chapter 6 USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY: CASE FORMS OF PRONOUNS; SPECIAL PRONOUN PROBLEMS Case Forms of Personal Pronouns ............................111 The Nominative Case A ..............................................112 The Nominative Case B ..............................................113 The Objective Case A ..................................................114 The Objective Case B ..................................................115 Nominative and Objective Case Pronouns ............116 The Possessive Case ....................................................117 Case Forms A ................................................................118 Case Forms B ................................................................119 Pronouns as Appositives ............................................120 Pronouns in Elliptical Constructions........................121 Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns ............................122 Who and Whom..............................................................123 Special Pronoun Problems..........................................124 REVIEW A: Case Forms of Personal Pronouns ........125 REVIEW B: Using the Correct Forms of Pronouns ..126 REVIEW C: Using the Correct Forms of Pronouns ..127 REVIEW D: Using the Correct Forms of Pronouns ..128

Chapter 7 CLEAR REFERENCE: PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS Pronouns and Their Antecedents..............................129 Correcting Ambiguous References ..........................130 Correcting General References ..................................131 Correcting Ambiguous and General References ................................................................132 Correcting Weak References ......................................133 Correcting Indefinite References ..............................134 Correcting Weak and Indefinite References............135

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Independent and Subordinate Clauses ......................70

Contents REVIEW A: Clear Reference ..........................................136 REVIEW B: Clear Reference ..........................................137 REVIEW C: Clear Reference ..........................................138

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Chapter 8 USING VERBS CORRECTLY: PRINCIPAL PARTS,TENSE,VOICE, MOOD The Principal Parts of Verbs ......................................139 Regular Verbs ................................................................140 Irregular Verbs A ..........................................................141 Irregular Verbs B ..........................................................142 Irregular Verbs C ..........................................................143 Irregular Verbs D ..........................................................144 Irregular Verbs E ..........................................................145 Lie and Lay......................................................................146 Sit and Set ......................................................................147 Rise and Raise ................................................................148 Six Troublesome Verbs ................................................149 Tense and Form ............................................................150 Correct Use of Verb Tenses A ....................................151 Correct Use of Verb Tenses B......................................152 Sequence of Tenses ......................................................153 Infinitives and Participles ..........................................154 Active and Passive Voice ............................................155 Uses of the Passive Voice ............................................156 Mood ..............................................................................157 Modals A ........................................................................158 Modals B ........................................................................159 REVIEW A: Principal Parts of Verbs ............................160 REVIEW B: Tense, Voice, Mood, and Modals ............161 REVIEW C: Six Troublesome Verbs..............................162 REVIEW D: Correct Use of Verb Forms ......................163

Chapter 9 USING MODIFIERS CORRECTLY: FORMS AND USES OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; COMPARISON Adjective or Adverb? ..................................................164 Phrases Used as Modifiers..........................................165 Clauses Used as Modifiers ........................................166 Uses of Modifiers..........................................................167 Bad and Badly; Good and Well ....................................168 Real and Really; Slow and Slowly ................................169 Eight Troublesome Modifiers ....................................170 Regular Comparison....................................................171

Irregular Comparison ..................................................172 Regular and Irregular Comparison ..........................173 Uses of Comparative and Superlative Forms A ....174 Uses of Comparative and Superlative Forms B ....175 Uses of Comparative and Superlative Forms C ....176 Clear Comparisons and Absolute Adjectives A ....177 Clear Comparisons and Absolute Adjectives B......178 Comparisons Review ..................................................179 REVIEW A: Forms of Modifiers....................................180 REVIEW B: Eight Troublesome Modifiers ..................181 REVIEW C: Comparison ................................................182 REVIEW D: All Types of Problems ..............................183

Chapter 10 PLACEMENT OF MODIFIERS: MISPLACED AND DANGLING MODIFIERS Misplaced Modifiers A ................................................184 Misplaced Modifiers B ................................................185 Squinting Modifiers A ................................................186 Squinting Modifiers B..................................................187 Dangling Modifiers A..................................................188 Dangling Modifiers B ..................................................189 REVIEW A: Placement of Modifiers ............................190 REVIEW B: Placement of Modifiers ............................191 REVIEW C: Placement of Modifiers ............................192

Chapter 11 A GLOSSARY OF USAGE: COMMON USAGE PROBLEMS Glossary of Usage A ....................................................193 Glossary of Usage B ....................................................194 Glossary of Usage C ....................................................195 Glossary of Usage D ....................................................196 Glossary of Usage E ....................................................197 Glossary of Usage F ....................................................198 The Double Negative and Nonsexist Language ....199 REVIEW A: Glossary of Usage......................................200 REVIEW B: Glossary of Usage ......................................201 REVIEW C: Glossary of Usage......................................202

Chapter 12 CAPITALIZATION: STANDARD USES OF CAPITAL LETTERS First Words, O, and the Pronoun I ............................203 Proper Nouns A ............................................................204

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Proper Nouns B ............................................................205 Proper Nouns C ............................................................206 Proper Nouns D............................................................207 Proper Nouns E ............................................................208 Proper Nouns F ............................................................209 Proper Nouns G............................................................210 Proper Nouns Review ................................................211 Personal Titles and Titles Showing Family Relationships ............................................................212 Titles and Subtitles ......................................................213 Abbreviations A ............................................................214 Abbreviations B ............................................................215 Titles and Abbreviations Review ..............................216 REVIEW A: Capitalization ............................................217 REVIEW B: Capitalization..............................................218 REVIEW C: Capitalization ............................................219

Chapter 13 PUNCTUATION: END MARKS AND COMMAS Using End Marks..........................................................220 Abbreviations A ............................................................221 Abbreviations B ............................................................222 Abbreviations C ............................................................223 Abbreviations D............................................................224 End Marks and Abbreviations ..................................225 Commas A ....................................................................226 Commas B ......................................................................227 Commas C......................................................................228 Commas D ....................................................................229 Commas E ......................................................................230 Commas F ......................................................................231 Commas G ....................................................................232 Commas H ....................................................................233 REVIEW A: End Marks and Abbreviations................234 REVIEW B: Commas ......................................................235 REVIEW C: End Marks and Commas ........................236

Chapter 14 PUNCTUATION: OTHER MARKS OF PUNCTUATION Semicolons A ................................................................237 Semicolons B..................................................................238 Semicolons: Review......................................................239 Colons A ........................................................................240

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Colons B..........................................................................241 Semicolons and Colons ..............................................242 Italics (Underlining) A ................................................243 Italics (Underlining) B..................................................244 Italics (Underlining): Review ....................................245 Quotation Marks A ......................................................246 Quotation Marks B ......................................................247 Quotation Marks C ......................................................248 Quotation Marks: Review ..........................................249 Italics (Underlining) and Quotation Marks ............250 Ellipsis Points ................................................................251 Apostrophes A ..............................................................252 Apostrophes B ..............................................................253 Apostrophes C ..............................................................254 Apostrophes D ..............................................................255 Apostrophes E ..............................................................256 Apostrophes F ..............................................................257 Apostrophes G ..............................................................258 Apostrophes: Review ..................................................259 Hyphens A ....................................................................260 Hyphens B......................................................................261 Hyphens: Review ........................................................262 Dashes ............................................................................263 Parentheses ....................................................................264 Brackets ..........................................................................265 Dashes, Parentheses, and Brackets............................266 REVIEW A: Using Punctuation Correctly ..................267 REVIEW B: Using Punctuation Correctly ..................268 REVIEW C: Using Punctuation Correctly ..................269

Chapter 15 SPELLING: IMPROVING YOUR SPELLING Good Spelling Habits ..................................................270 ie and ei ..........................................................................271 –cede, –ceed, and –sede ..................................................272 Prefixes............................................................................273 Suffixes A........................................................................274 Suffixes B ........................................................................275 Suffixes C........................................................................276 Suffixes D ......................................................................277 ie and ei; –cede, –ceed, and –sede; Prefixes and Suffixes ..............................................................278 Plurals A ........................................................................279 Plurals B..........................................................................280

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Contents

Contents Plurals C ........................................................................281 Plurals D ........................................................................282 Plurals E..........................................................................283 Plurals F..........................................................................284 Plurals G ........................................................................285 Plurals H ........................................................................286 Numbers ........................................................................287 Words Often Confused A............................................288 Words Often Confused B ............................................289 Words Often Confused C............................................290 Words Often Confused D............................................291 Words Often Confused E ............................................292 REVIEW A: Spelling Rules ............................................293 REVIEW B: Words Often Confused ............................294 REVIEW C: Spelling and Words Often Confused ....295 REVIEW D: Spelling and Words Often Confused ....296

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Chapter 16 CORRECTING COMMON ERRORS Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences A ......297 Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences B........298 Subject-Verb Agreement A..........................................299 Subject-Verb Agreement B ..........................................300 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement A ..........................301 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement B ..........................302 Pronoun Forms A ........................................................303 Pronoun Forms B..........................................................304 Clear Pronoun Reference A ........................................305 Clear Pronoun Reference B ........................................306

Verb Forms A ................................................................307 Verb Forms B ................................................................308 Verb Tense ......................................................................309 Comparative and Superlative Forms of Modifiers ..................................................................310 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers A......................311 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers B ......................312 Correct Use of Modifiers ............................................313 Standard Usage A ........................................................314 Standard Usage B ........................................................315 Standard Usage C ........................................................316 Capitalization A ............................................................317 Capitalization B ............................................................318 Commas A......................................................................319 Commas B ......................................................................320 Semicolons and Colons ..............................................321 Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation A..........322 Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation B ..........323 Apostrophes ..................................................................324 All Marks of Punctuation Review A ........................325 All Marks of Punctuation Review B ........................326 Spelling A ......................................................................327 Spelling B........................................................................328 Words Often Confused................................................329 Spelling and Words Often Confused........................330 REVIEW A: Usage............................................................331 REVIEW B: Mechanics ....................................................332 REVIEW C: Usage and Mechanics ..............................333

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Using This Workbook The worksheets in this workbook provide practice, reinforcement, and extension for Chapters 1–16 of Elements of Language. Most of the worksheets you will find in this workbook are traditional worksheets providing practice and reinforcement activities on every rule and on all major instructional topics in the grammar, usage, and mechanics chapters in Elements of Language.

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The Teaching Resources include the Answer Key, which is located on the Teacher One Stop.

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ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE | Sixth Course

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Common, Proper, Concrete, and Abstract Nouns 1a. A noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. COMMON NOUNS scientist, artist PROPER NOUNS Albert Einstein, Jackson Pollock CONCRETE NOUNS moon, calendar, broccoli,Vietnam ABSTRACT NOUNS gentility, meekness, Buddhism, hope

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline the common nouns once and the proper nouns twice. Above each noun write C if the noun is concrete or A if the noun is abstract. C A C Example 1. Beth worked up the courage to eat some of the unfamiliar dish.

1. My father believes sunshine can make you smart. 2. The cowboys took the horses to the creek just past Razzleberry Hill. 3. Jon did not have the strength to close the window. 4. I learned to speak Portuguese from my teacher, Dr. Tihonen. 5. That’s a good thought, Jacob, but I don’t have any plastic bags. 6. From the house, you can see both the waterfall and the stream. 7. It’s not about how you hit the baseball; it’s about your mental attitude. 8. The province finally won its independence. 9. It takes patience to learn the guitar. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

10. Farley, Jack, and I paddled our canoes down the Colorado River. 11. Moving to Pittsburgh caused me a lot of heartache. 12. Why don’t you take off your shoes and rest your feet, Lucy? 13. That student has great ambition. 14. Our homework is due tomorrow. 15. My brother is a surgeon in Houston. 16. Robby is an excellent saxophone player. 17. I wish everyone could enjoy the love of a loyal pet. 18. Paul thought the play was about forgiveness. 19. The hippopotamus rested in the cool water. 20. Let’s not listen to that song right now.

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Collective and Compound Nouns The singular form of a collective noun names a group. A compound noun consists of two or more words used together as one noun. The parts of a compound noun may be written as one word, as separate words, or as a hyphenated word. COLLECTIVE NOUNS organization, herd, choir, team COMPOUND NOUNS highway, high school, son-in-law

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline the collective nouns once and the compound nouns twice. Example 1. Our class took a field trip last week.

1. On our way to the Museum of Fine Arts, the bus began to overheat. 2. Our bus driver, Mr. Peterson, said we had to pull over to the wayside. 3. One group of students wandered down to see the pond. 4. There was a mother duck with a brood of ducklings. 5. “Look,” I said, “a fleet of ducks!” 6. “Silly!” said Lynn. “It’s called a flock of ducks.” 7. “But they float around like ships,” I said. “Maybe we should call them a crew.” 8. A few people from the class fed the flock with bread from our lunchboxes. 9. Lynn got too close to the waterside and almost fell in. 10. Some of our classmates walked to the other side of the lake. 11. A group of boys began throwing a football. 12. Some students in the choir decided to practice a song. 13. I’m not in the choir; I’m in the band. 14. The teacher used a cell phone to call the school. 15. After the radiator was fixed, the crowd got back on the bus. 16. When I bent down to retie my shoelace, I noticed a baby duck under the seat. 17. We coaxed the bird back to the duck pond, where its family was waiting. 18. As we drove off, the entire class waved goodbye to the flock through the rear window. 19. I was happy that our group was finally on its way to the museum. 20. However, when we got there, there was a sign on the museum door: “Museum closed due to floodwater.”

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Pronouns and Antecedents 1b. A pronoun takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns. The word that a pronoun stands for is the antecedent of the pronoun. EXAMPLES Ruth decorated the room herself. [The noun Ruth is the antecedent of herself.] The teacher wrote his name on the board. [The noun teacher is the antecedent of his.]

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline each pronoun once and its antecedent twice. Example

1. Phillip and Laura live in the town where they both grew up.

1. Uncle Andrew is in this picture; he is on the far left. 2. When Clara was a little girl, she wanted to be an artist. 3. The dishes are in the dishwasher because they are dirty. 4. Mary drove here herself. 5. Clifford will have to hurry; he is late. 6. Where is the screwdriver? It was here a minute ago. 7. Tell George the blue umbrella is for him. 8. Tori is leaving. Will Ed go with her? 9. Andrea had something in her eye. 10. The sign was so small it could not be seen from the road.

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11. Dad went with him when Sven took the driving test. 12. Tom built the shed himself. 13. Seth said, “I intend to be president of the class.” 14. The students painted the mural themselves. 15. The clock needs to be wound because it has stopped. 16. As they entered the pep rally, Carl and Christopher announced loudly, “The wrestling team has arrived!”

17. Louie and Rachel are tired of their toys. 18. Ms. Young told Jamie, “You were the student voted most likely to succeed.” 19. Is Sergio at his job? 20. The factory workers and the managers are happy they get along so well.

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Personal, Reflexive, and Intensive Pronouns A personal pronoun refers to the one(s) speaking (first person), the one(s) spoken to (second person), or the one(s) spoken about (third person). A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of a verb and functions as a complement or as the object of a preposition. An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent—a noun or another pronoun.

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline each pronoun. Then, identify each pronoun by writing above it P for personal, I for intensive, or R for reflexive. P I P R Example 1. He said himself that we should be kind to ourselves.

1. They rode the train west for as far as it would carry them. 2. We thought this house was hers. 3. He convinced himself to finish the chores. 4. They themselves made the waffles. 5. I found her house all by myself. 6. Our greatest challenge is ahead of us. 7. His sister went with him to find your dog. 8. I wrote myself a note about their party. 9. You could paint the room yourself. 10. She is my favorite designer. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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for CHAPTER 1: THE PARTS OF SPEECH

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11. The puppy chased its tail until it tired itself out. 12. Her grandparents live next door to you, don’t they? 13. You may help yourself to the buffet. 14. It was so cold that we could see our breath. 15. She fixed the leaking faucet herself. 16. The scientists themselves could not figure out the problem. 17. You and your friends should join us. 18. We are not planning to see the movie ourselves. 19. If she said we would not finish the race, then she does not know us well. 20. Monica herself was there to meet us when we dragged ourselves off the plane after the longest flight of our lives.

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Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Relative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points out a noun or another pronoun. An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS this, that, these, those INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS who, whom, which, what, whose RELATIVE PRONOUNS that, which, who, whom, whose

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline demonstrative, interrogative, and relative pronouns. Then, above each underlined pronoun, write D for demonstrative, I for interrogative, or R for relative. I Example 1. “Who stole the diamond-covered shoehorn?” asked the great detective.

1. “We must discover the culprit who is guilty of this crime.” 2. “The shoehorn was last seen near a window, which has been broken.” 3. “Which is the window that was broken?” asked Ann, the housekeeper. 4. “This must be the one,” said Harold, the butler. 5. Harold pointed to a window, which had been shattered. 6. “What are the marks on the ground outside the window?” asked Ann. 7. “Those are footprints,” replied the great detective. 8. “They belong to someone whose boots are very large.” Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

9. “Who has boots as big as the footprints?” asked Ann, looking at the butler’s feet. 10. “What are you implying?” demanded the butler. 11. “The thief must have large feet. That’s all,” said Ann, looking down at her small shoes. 12. “These are certainly the footprints of the thief,” said the great detective. 13. “However, those were not necessarily the boots of the thief.” 14. “What do you mean?” they both asked. 15. “There is one thing that you are forgetting,” said the great detective. “Small feet can fit into large boots, too.”

16. “That is silly,” said Ann. 17. “Why would someone who had small feet wear large boots?” 18. “What could be a better way of disguising your footprints than using someone else’s shoes?” 19. “That is right,” said the butler. “A pair of my boots is missing.” 20. “This is the thief!” cried the great detective, pointing at Ann, the small-footed housekeeper. Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics: Language Skills Practice

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Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS all, another, anyone, both, each, everyone, everybody, everything, few, many, neither, nothing, several, such

EXERCISE A Underline the indefinite pronouns in the following sentences. Example 1. Today, most of us use flatware to eat.

1. However, in the not-too-distant past, eating with one’s fingers was nothing unusual. 2. Etiquette dictated that anyone considered “high-class” should use only three fingers to pick up a morsel, leaving out the pinky and ring finger.

3. Someone might, in fact, be mocked for using a utensil rather than just his or her hands. 4. Few know that the fork is a rather recent invention; it was first used for eating in eleventhcentury Tuscany, which today is part of Italy.

5. The new utensil spread to other parts of Europe, though it was considered by most to be more a curiosity than a useful tool.

6. Many at the time considered the use of the fork to be strange and even ungodly. 7. It was not until the eighteenth century that the French nobility began to believe it was impolite for one to use fingers at the table.

8. Consequently, most started using forks. 9. The spoon and knife predate the fork, as anyone who studies culinary history could explain. 10. Of the early spoons that have been found, most were made of thin, concave pieces of wood.

EXERCISE B Write appropriate indefinite pronouns to complete the following sentences. anyone imagine eating dinner in a fine restaurant without at least one Example 1. Could _________ spoon by the plate?

11. _________ have been found in Asia, while others have been discovered in Egyptian tombs. 12. _________ know that the knife is much older than either the spoon or the fork. 13. _________ knows for sure, but it is believed that the knife has been used for 1.5 million years. 14. People used early knives for _________ from eating to fighting one another. 15. While _________—the fork, the spoon, and the knife—has a different history, they combine to make eating more efficient.

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

GRAMMAR

for CHAPTER 1: THE PARTS OF SPEECH

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pages 57–58

Adjectives and the Words They Modify 1c.

An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun.

An adjective tells what kind, which one, how many, or how much. WHAT KIND green eyes, French perfume WHICH ONE these pencils, last page HOW MANY six erasers, few pennies HOW MUCH some sand, enough sauce A, an, and the are the most frequently used adjectives. They are called articles.

EXERCISE Underline each adjective in the following sentences once. Then, draw an arrow from the adjective to the word it modifies. Do not underline articles. Example 1. Lumpy oatmeal is the only kind I will eat.

1. Larry brought four suitcases on vacation. 2. I enjoyed the scary movie we saw yesterday. 3. Will we have enough soup for everyone? 4. The dry leaves crunched underfoot. 5. The first time I saw snow, I was in New Mexico. 6. The young skater was surrounded by many admirers. 7. There is less need for caution now.

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8. All students must go to the new auditorium. 9. Sunny weather makes me smile. 10. I don’t need those notes anymore. 11. We will need some fennel for this recipe. 12. The red wagon is rusting in the rain. 13. The second door on the left is the bathroom. 14. Several children in the group are afraid of clowns. 15. Chloe had three tests on the same day. 16. After the storm, we found the hungry dogs hiding in an old shed. 17. You must have more courage than I do. 18. They made a lemon glaze for the shortbread cookies. 19. This song has twelve verses. 20. The club has little money, so I don’t think we can afford an end-of-the-year trip. Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics: Language Skills Practice

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Adjective or Pronoun? Many of the words that can be used as pronouns can also be used as adjectives. PRONOUNS This is the longest novel I have ever read. Which of the parking lots is being repaved? ADJECTIVES This novel has really made me think about life. Which parking lot do you usually use?

EXERCISE A In the following sentences, the same word is used twice, once as an adjective and once as a pronoun. Identify each underlined word by writing above it A for adjective or P for pronoun. A P Example 1. We should study both chapters because both will be on the test.

1. Few would spend so few hours studying. 2. Which review sheet is which? 3. These notes are better, so we should study these. 4. Any way of remembering these dates would help; can you think of any? 5. This is how I remember this fact.

EXERCISE B In the following sentences, identify each underlined word by writing above it A for adjective or P for pronoun. A Example 1. Each student was nervous about the test results.

6. Few had finished the test in the time allowed. 7. Even those students who finished the test had many questions. 8. Several students arrived early for class on Monday. 9. Some even waited in the hall for the teacher to arrive. 10. The students were confused about a statement that had to be identified as either true or false. 11. Either answer could be correct, depending on how one looked at it. 12. However, many thought it was neither. 13. The teacher told them such things occasionally happen on tests. 14. The question, which had been poorly worded, was unclear. 15. Since either was acceptable, students got credit for either answer.

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Adjective or Noun? Most words that are used as nouns can also be used as adjectives. NOUNS table dog United States ADJECTIVES table lamp dog food United States government

EXERCISE Identify each underlined word by writing above it A for adjective or N for noun. A N Example 1. The tiger habitat at this zoo is beautiful.

1. The restaurant guide says this place is terrible. 2. The cat ran out through the cat door. 3. I love to make fudge brownies. 4. A group of lions is called a pride. 5. The bedroom closet is too small. 6. The bulldozer made a lot of noise that morning. 7. This mountain is part of a range that stretches for hundreds of miles. 8. Would you like to be a travel writer someday? 9. Camping is my favorite vacation activity. 10. Our town has a harvest festival every year. 11. William is the nicest boy in school.

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12. Have you ever heard a really good mandolin player? 13. Apricots look like small peaches to me. 14. May I borrow your toenail clippers? 15. Our neighbor, the beekeeper, collects yard art. 16. Does that store sell plant fertilizer? 17. This huge computer is obsolete now. 18. Birthday decorations covered the entire table. 19. At the picnic, we ate egg salad off paper plates with plastic forks. 20. Let’s look for him in the garden.

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Main Verbs and Helping Verbs 1d. A verb expresses action or a state of being. A main verb and one or more helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs) make up a verb phrase. A modal is a helping verb that is joined with a main verb to express an attitude such as necessity or possibility. VERBS A pair of robins landed in the tree and began to build a nest. VERB PHRASES The concert has been canceled, but it will soon be rescheduled. MODALS If you must go outside in this weather, you should wear a good hat.

EXERCISE Underline each verb phrase in the following sentences and underline each main verb twice. Example 1. In 1914, when the Endurance was sailing to the Antarctic, its crew could not have known what lay ahead of them.

1. Sir Ernest Shackleton, who was the leader of the expedition, was a seasoned explorer who had been on two expeditions to Antarctica.

2. Shackleton and his team were planning a trip across the continent on foot. 3. The trip was delayed first at South Georgia Island, which is near Antarctica. 4. None of the whalers on the island could remember a time when the ice conditions had been as bad.

5. The whalers advised Shackleton that he should wait at least a month and perhaps should even wait another season.

6. After a month’s delay, the Endurance was continuing south when the ship ran into ice about 80 miles from its destination.

7. The men could not free their ship from the ice. 8. They were slowly being carried farther and farther from land, as the ice pack was drifting with the current.

9. Since they could not sail again until the spring, Shackleton and his men settled in for the winter.

10. It was boring for the men that winter, but at least they had good shelter and enough food.

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Action Verbs An action verb expresses either physical or mental activity. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY run, draw, push MENTAL ACTIVITY think, remember

EXERCISE Underline all of the action verbs in the following sentences. Identify each verb by writing above it P if it expresses physical activity or M if it expresses mental activity. M P Example 1. Please remember that we must wash the car today.

1. I know about every book in that series. 2. I doubt the accuracy of that statement. 3. Herman rides the bus every day. 4. I think I understand this assignment. 5. You will find your keys on the hall table. 6. We should drive to the beach. 7. He thought we were arriving at noon. 8. They have solved the problem. 9. We baked gingerbread cookies. 10. Consider the risks before you start your own business.

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11. Who will open this jar for me? 12. The pie cooled on the windowsill. 13. She runs like the wind. 14. I wonder if it will rain. 15. Think of the possibilities! 16. Elizabeth told us about it. 17. Harry will go first today. 18. I usually exercise for an hour. 19. He says he can estimate the number of people who will vote. 20. I suppose the meeting will begin on time.

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Linking Verbs A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. Such a word or word group is called a subject complement. EXAMPLES This meal smells delicious! Who is the new class president? That must be one of the oldest buildings in the city.

EXERCISE Underline the linking verbs in the following sentences. Example 1. I may be the shortest one here, but I am also the best basketball player.

1. He is the office manager. 2. At first, the problem appeared unsolvable. 3. Hermina seems sad. 4. You are very brave to volunteer for that job. 5. We have been cold all morning. 6. That looks wonderful! 7. She could be president. 8. They felt encouraged after the meeting with the coach. 9. We were the first ones in line today. 10. What would be best? 11. The film became more and more difficult to follow. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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12. That movie was an immediate success. 13. Where is the broom that usually sits in the closet? 14. What could be more interesting? 15. Is he really a circus acrobat? 16. The honeysuckle smelled sweet. 17. You grow more beautiful every time I see you. 18. Who is your counselor? 19. This tastes too salty. 20. Your plan sounds as though it will work.

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Transitive and Intransitive Verbs A transitive verb has an object—a word that tells who or what receives the action. An intransitive verb does not have an object. TRANSITIVE Becky gave her speech first. [The object speech receives the action of the verb gave.] Frank has thrown more touchdown passes than anyone else in the division. [The object passes receives the action of the verb has thrown.] INTRANSITIVE Rain has been falling for the last three hours. The detective is very perceptive.

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline each intransitive verb once and underline each transitive verb twice. Example 1. I can hardly wait for opening night of our production of King Lear.

1. I play the character of Regan in our school’s production of Shakespeare’s tragedy. 2. We rehearse every weeknight. 3. Fortunately, I can memorize lines fairly quickly. 4. My friend Robert plays the character Kent. 5. He always arrives early for rehearsal. 6. The last school play was Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett. 7. I was not in that play, but I helped the set designers on the weekends.

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8. One day I would like to act in a big Broadway musical. 9. I can sing enthusiastically. 10. My mother sings beautifully. 11. She has perfect pitch. 12. She sang in jazz clubs. 13. It was at a performance that she met my father, a piano player. 14. He can really tickle the ivories! 15. They help with tips about show business. 16. Sometimes my mother and I sing a duet while my father plays the piano. 17. “Music comes from the heart, not the head,” my dad says. 18. Of course, there is no music in King Lear, but I enjoy my part a lot. 19. The next production will be Romeo and Juliet. 20. I’ll be auditioning for the part of Juliet.

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Adverbs and the Words They Modify 1e. An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. An adverb tells how, when, where, or to what extent (how much, how often, or how long). EXAMPLES He spoke loudly and slowly. [The adverbs loudly and slowly modify the verb spoke, telling how.] They sat in the extremely uncomfortable chairs. [The adverb extremely modifies the adjective uncomfortable, telling to what extent.] She wrote the answers very neatly. [The adverb very modifies the adverb neatly, telling to what extent. The adverb neatly modifies the verb wrote, telling how.]

EXERCISE A Underline each of the adverbs in the following sentences and draw an arrow from the adverb to the word(s) it modifies. Hint: A sentence may have more than one adverb. Example 1. The original version of this game ran unbelievably slowly.

1. Considering that this video game is fairly old, it has surprisingly good graphics. 2. Is that the surpassingly lovely princess I have to rescue? 3. That was an unusually friendly gnome. 4. My character in the game is an exceptionally skilled archer. 5. At the archery tournament, I shot my arrow almost exactly in the center of the target. 6. I think a goblin is lurking nearby. 7. The castle’s towers loom ominously over the treacherously swampy landscape. 8. Rather reluctantly, the gatekeeper let me into the city. 9. My sister mastered this game quickly. 10. The continually elusive high score escaped me again.

EXERCISE B On the line provided, add an adverb to complete each sentence below. quietly Example 1. After the lecture Jesse and his friends __________________ walked to a nearby cafe.

11. Once seated, they all __________________ began discussing the topic of the lecture. 12. Jesse argued __________________ that the speaker’s comments were well supported. 13. Cynthia disagreed __________________ and offered her own views on the subject. 14. Rafael suggested that the lecture would have been __________________ interesting if there had been more time for questions at the end.

15. __________________, they all agreed that they had learned a lot and hoped to attend another lecture soon.

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Noun or Adverb? Some words that are often used as nouns may also be used as adverbs. NOUN Friday is the day I start my racquetball lessons. ADVERB I’ll be having another lesson every Friday for the next two months. [The noun Friday is used as an adverb telling when.]

EXERCISE In the following sentences, identify the underlined word by writing above it N if it is a noun or ADV if it is an adverb. N Example 1. Yesterday was exciting.

1. My parents and I arrived in New York City yesterday. 2. First, we went uptown to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3. That was wonderful, so I thought that uptown would be my favorite part of New York. 4. Then, we went downtown. 5. Downtown is definitely my favorite, but not because of any of its tourist attractions. 6. It is my favorite because it is my best friend Miriam’s home. 7. After only a few days, I certainly was not ready to go home. 8. Miriam and I went to Chinatown and Little Italy today. 9. I think today has been the most fun so far. 10. My family has to leave tomorrow. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

11. Tomorrow is the first day of spring. 12. We get to go upstate to see the countryside. 13. My aunt says that upstate is very beautiful. 14. First we will spend two nights in a cabin. 15. I will probably be the first to cook dinner at the cabin. 16. I’m really looking forward to Sunday. 17. Sunday, Miriam and I will visit her aunt who lives on Lake Ontario. 18. If we have time, we’ll then drive into Canada. 19. Since we haven’t yet spoken to Miriam’s aunt about it, we can’t really make plans until then. 20. Finally, on Wednesday we’ll return to New York City to take an airplane home.

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The Preposition 1f.

A preposition shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word. EXAMPLES The water flowed over the rocks.

The water flowed around the rocks. The tree stood next to the water.

EXERCISE Underline the preposition(s) in the following sentences. Example 1. Is this phone call about the book you lent me before the holidays?

1. I think it’s underneath my bed. 2. If it’s not there, then I’m sure it’s behind the couch. 3. It might be in my backpack. 4. Wait—I remember leaving it at the bus stop. 5. I got on the bus without your book. 6. It must have slipped out of my backpack onto the ground. 7. Your shoe is beside the table. 8. It could be on the porch. 9. I can’t believe I left your jacket out there! 10. At the time, it seemed like a good idea. 11. It’s a shame about the rain.

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12. I’m sure your favorite jacket is as good as new. 13. There may be a few rips on the sleeve. 14. That jacket is out of style anyway. 15. I washed your T-shirt in the sink. 16. Now the ketchup stain is gone without a trace! 17. Unfortunately, it fell into a bucket of paint. 18. Also, I lent your binoculars to my neighbor. 19. Please accept an apology from the bottom of my heart. 20. Can I borrow your guitar for a few days?

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Adverb or Preposition? Some of the words that are commonly used as prepositions may also be used as adverbs. Keep in mind that an adverb is a modifier and that it does not have an object. Prepositions always have objects. ADVERB Did you leave those muddy boots outside? [Outside modifies the verb did leave.] PREPOSITION Take those boots off while you’re outside the house. [Outside introduces a prepositional phrase and has an object, house.]

EXERCISE In each of the following sentences, the underlined word is used once as an adverb and once as a preposition. Identify each underlined word by writing above it ADV for adverb or PREP for preposition. PREP ADV Example 1. Your family is waiting in the living room, so you should go in.

1. After going inside, I realized there was no more room for food inside the refrigerator. 2. By ourselves, we watched the cars go by. 3. The game is over, over there. 4. Get off the court, but don’t run off. 5. We must surround that building because the fugitive is within, still within our reach. 6. Before you go out the door, tell me if we are going out tonight. 7. If the show is going to go on, we have to be on time. 8. You can’t go across this mountain range in your car, because there is no good road to take

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you across.

9. After he climbed down the telephone pole, he sat down on the ground. 10. When you go outside, see if there are any snowdrifts outside our fence. 11. We left Ted behind when we went behind the curtain. 12. I cooked the roast throughout the afternoon, until it was well-done throughout. 13. They walked around the park because they like to walk around. 14. Carry on without fear, and don’t worry that you will have to go without. 15. Above all, we noticed the helicopter hovering above. 16. Let’s climb up, because the best view is from up this hill. 17. Along the side of the road, a dog was ambling along. 18. In 2007, my grandmother moved in. 19. After reading a book about exotic locations, we decided to travel about. 20. Past ninety, but still charming, the man lifted his hat whenever a lady walked past.

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The Conjunction 1g. A conjunction joins words or word groups. A coordinating conjunction joins words or word groups that are used in the same way. Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way. A subordinating conjunction begins a subordinate clause and connects it to an independent clause.

EXERCISE Underline every conjunction in the following sentences. Example 1. My sister has finished her holiday shopping, but I have hardly started mine.

1. Not only am I late getting started, but I also haven’t decided what to buy for everyone. 2. I look forward to buying presents for my mother and my father. 3. While I was studying for finals, I didn’t have time to think about shopping. 4. Since finals are over, I have to hurry to get caught up. 5. Not only do I typically buy presents for them, but I also get a gift for my sister. 6. Since the emphasis is on giving, no one in my family expects expensive presents. 7. Gifts are a holiday tradition, and everyone in my family enjoys the custom. 8. If I could knit, I would make them each a scarf. 9. While I’m shopping, I should buy a gift for my girlfriend, too. 10. Well, she’s not really my girlfriend, though I think she’s smart and pretty. 11. I’m planning to buy her either flowers or a book of poems by Yeats. 12. I could write a few poems myself and give her those instead of the book. 13. I think I’ll get my dad a new hat or some golf balls. 14. He needs the hat because he usually works outside. 15. Although I want to get my mother a new coat, I only have enough money to buy her a blouse. 16. While my sister probably wants ski boots, I’m going to buy her some earmuffs. 17. Last year I gave my mother an oven mitt and my father a pair of socks. 18. I had even less money then than I do now. 19. Whether I buy them expensive gifts or not, my parents always like what I give them. 20. After I buy everything I want for them, I’m getting a basketball for myself.

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The Interjection 1h. An interjection expresses emotion and has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence. An interjection is often set off from the rest of the sentence by an exclamation point or one or more commas. Exclamation points indicate strong emotion. Commas indicate mild emotion. EXAMPLES Whoa! Don’t try to carry so much at one time. I thought that, well, you might like to see a movie this weekend.

EXERCISE Underline the interjections in the following sentences. Example 1. Hey! You stepped on my toe!

1. Oh, do you want to get started? 2. I’ll just grab this teakettle—ouch! 3. Uh-oh, where are my keys? 4. Well, that’s the best I can do. 5. My! That was a close one! 6. Oh, I’m going to be okay when the bone heals. 7. Oops! That’s too much ketchup! 8. Just look at that airplane! Wow! 9. If you don’t get it the first time, well, don’t give up.

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10. Aha! Now I know where I put my lampshade! 11. Yes! That’s right! 12. No! You lose! 13. Sure, I believe crocodiles can eat cars. 14. Hey! The garage is on fire! 15. Yippee! We’re moving to Texas! 16. That’s how I would do it, but, hey, do whatever you think is best. 17. Well, I guess we’re stuck with it then. 18. Aha! Now I understand how to finish my science project! 19. I’ll just gently move this crystal goblet over to the shelf—oops! 20. I’m glad that’s over. Phew!

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Determining Parts of Speech 1i.

The way a word is used in a sentence determines what part of speech the word is. EXAMPLES Have you finished band practice yet? [noun]

If you don’t practice your oboe, you won’t get any better. [verb] Did you leave your oboe in the practice hall? [adjective]

EXERCISE A Identify the part of speech of each underlined word in the following paragraphs by writing above it N for noun, PRO for pronoun, ADJ for adjective,V for verb, ADV for adverb, PREP for preposition, CON for conjunction, or INT for interjection. V Example [1] Oops! I think I blinked.

[1] “Wow! Wait until you see your picture! It’s great!” [2] Every year at high schools throughout the United States, excitement is the overwhelming response of students as they get their [3] first glimpse of the yearbook. Also known as the annual, the yearbook is published in either May or June [4] and is regarded [5] by seniors as a [6] sure sign that graduation is no longer a dream but a reality.

[7] Although the yearbook may seem to appear [8] rather magically, it [9] represents the combined efforts of [10] several in our class.

EXERCISE B In each of the following sentences, underline every word that is used as the part of speech given in parentheses after the sentence. Example 1. Planning for the yearbook begins in the spring: Editors are chosen, themes are decided, and budgets are set. (preposition)

11. When high school opens for the fall semester, the staff moves at top speed. (verb) 12. A flurry of activity marks September and October: organizing the senior section, covering sports and clubs, shooting candids of students and faculty, and running the advertising campaign. (adjective)

13. Frazzled but wiser, the staff members meet their first deadline, with the knowledge that it is only the first of many yet to come. (pronoun)

14. Then, during the winter months, when deadlines come faster and meetings last longer, deep friendships are often formed. (adverb)

15. Finally, by mid-March, the work is finished. (noun)

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Review A: Parts of Speech EXERCISE Identify the part of speech of each underlined word in the following sentences by writing above it N for noun, PRO for pronoun, ADJ for adjective,V for verb, ADV for adverb, PREP for preposition, CON for conjunction, or INT for interjection. PRO ADJ Example 1. That is the reason I don’t want that one.

1. As we drew near the light at the end of the road, a light rain was falling. 2. The bird-watcher saw the woodpecker hop off the wooden fence and fly off. 3. After the play had become a success, the director made dinner for the cast and crew after a performance.

4. The gardener plants seeds in the spring and harvests the plants in the fall. 5. According to the school’s monthly newsletter, an open meeting of the debate club is held monthly.

6. When the fire alarms sound, you cannot hear the sound of anything else. 7. This indicates that you do not understand this grammatical concept very well. 8. The kite flew high until its string got caught in the high branches of a cottonwood tree. 9. Before the arena’s gates opened, you were standing before us in the waiting line. 10. Telephone me when your telephone is repaired.

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11. Aretha walked along with us as we enjoyed our hike along the river. 12. If you won’t climb up the ladder, then I will have to climb up. 13. This is the first time I have read this book. 14. After I left the room, I remembered my promise to stay after class. 15. I will sled down the hill, and then you can use my sled. 16. Scientists must fully understand the effect before they can effect a correction. 17. Well, I believe my watch just fell down the well. 18. Those are the costumes worn by those actors. 19. The new assistant reports directly to the assistant principal. 20. Put that down; it’s an antique down pillow, and you could damage it.

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Review B: Parts of Speech EXERCISE A Each of the following sentences contains either one word or two words of the kind specified before the sentence. Find each of these words and underline it. Examples 1. (verb)

Computers serve many purposes.

2. (pronoun) Without them our society would be considerably different. 1. (conjunction) As computers have become increasingly common, they have changed our lives and our society.

2. (pronoun)

Anyone who has played a video game has seen how fascinating a computer program can be.

3. (adjective)

Of course, providing fun is only one purpose that computers serve.

4. (verb)

The incredible operating speed of computers accounts in large part for their seemingly uncanny capabilities.

5. (preposition)

A powerful computer can instantly perform herculean tasks that require days or weeks of a person’s time.

6. (noun)

Someone who has used even a simple pocket calculator is likely to appreciate computer capabilities.

7. (preposition)

With the appropriate software and the touch of a key, business executives can generate complicated schedules and budgets.

8. (adverb)

Mechanical engineers can create remarkably detailed drawings of machines.

9. (pronoun)

Everyone from preschool tots to college professors is using computers.

10. (adverb)

You may already be able to program computers, or perhaps you would like to learn.

EXERCISE B Identify the part of speech of each underlined word in the following sentences by writing above it N for noun, PRO for pronoun, ADJ for adjective,V for verb, ADV for adverb, PREP for preposition, CON for conjunction, or INT for interjection. ADJ Example [1] Daniel is an enthusiastic computer hobbyist. Daniel loves his [11] computer. He [12] works [13] tirelessly to perfect the programs he has designed. [14] In his room, Daniel has every kind of [15] computer accessory you can imagine.

[16] He hopes to combine his interests in computers [17] and monster movies by working for a special effects company [18] someday. [19] Wow, [20] that sounds like fun!

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Review C: Parts of Speech EXERCISE Identify the part of speech of each underlined word in the following paragraph by writing above it N for noun, PRO for pronoun, ADJ for adjective,V for verb, ADV for adverb, PREP for preposition, CON for conjunction, or INT for interjection. ADV Example Read the passage [1] carefully. From 1853 to 1857, Nathaniel Hawthorne was a United States [1] consul [2] in England. [3] He traveled extensively and kept a series of journals in which he commented [4] shrewdly on the English landscape and [5] English character. After his return to the United States, he gathered together a number of excerpts from these journals and [6] published them as a [7] book. [8] One excerpt recounts an experience he had [9] while he was journeying in the Lake District of England. He was traveling [10] between the villages of Grasmere and Windermere in a stagecoach that was greatly overloaded; there were fifteen [11] outside passengers, [12] besides the four inside passengers. The road was rough and [13] hilly, and [14] Hawthorne expected that the coach would topple any minute since [15] it was creaking and swaying [16] dangerously. He

[17] became convinced that he was going to be thrown headlong from the coach against the high stone fence that [18] bordered the road. [19] Ouch! He determined that at the moment of catastrophe he would fling his heavy shawl [20] about his head to give himself some protection. With this

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decision, he settled back to await his fate.

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Sentences and Sentence Fragments 2a. A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought. SENTENCE FRAGMENT Last summer on my vacation. SENTENCE Last summer on my vacation, I went to Arizona.

EXERCISE If one of the following word groups is a sentence, add appropriate capitalization and punctuation and write S before the item number. If the word group is a sentence fragment, add or delete words to make it a sentence. Then, add appropriate capitalization and punctuation. Example 1. did think of the class field trip to the American Indian reservation What did you think of the class field trip to the American Indian reservation?

1. oraibi is one of the oldest continually inhabited villages in America

2. according to the guide’s lecture, the Hopi reservation is surrounded by the Navajo reservation

3. a remarkable description given about the life of the Hopi people

4. situated near several massive stone mesas, the eleven villages by the canyon

5. found on the protected Hopi reservation in the beautiful Arizona desert Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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6. tewa, Sichomovi, and Walpi are three villages atop the mesa

7. breathtaking cliff-side stone houses they are

8. the villages, also called “pueblos”

9. are some villages known for pottery

10. a pleasant visit to this ancient reservation, a sight to behold

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Subjects and Predicates 2b. Sentences consist of two basic parts: subjects and predicates. The subject is a word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.The predicate is a word or word group that tells something about the subject. SUBJECT The western coast of England will provide the setting for the story. PREDICATE The western coast of England will provide the setting for the story.

EXERCISE For each of the following sentences, identify the underlined words as the subject or the predicate. Write S for subject or P for predicate. P P Example 1. Before leaving the southern coast, my brother and I took wonderful photos of the sun sinking into the sea.

1. The four-star general examined the maps and other strategic information. 2. The writer will strive to be more thorough and accurate in her work. 3. Was Carla at the bowling alley or the movie theater? 4. The skilled guide dog waited attentively for the traffic light to change. 5. Along the winding road through the woods, we made our way to the cabin. 6. Was the jewel heist at the department store the top story on the evening news? 7. Under the current policy, soft drinks and snacks are not permitted in Ms. Garcia’s classroom. 8. The search turned up nothing but a pencil and sixty-five cents in change. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

9. Did Perry get on the subway at 96th Street and Broadway? 10. The girls’ gymnastics squad at my high school is training for the district championship. 11. At the top of the page, the writer listed the sources that he had used. 12. After storing our backpacks in the cabin, we sat and watched the sun set over the water. 13. The tiny restaurant, tucked in the corner of the square, had only sandwiches on the menu. 14. The movie starred two mermaids, an alien, and a lovable dog named Ralph. 15. Under the neon sign, the portrait artist waited for another customer. 16. Just beyond the train station and the information booth, Adam found the youth hostel. 17. Is this it? 18. The tour bus will be making another stop soon. 19. Three books, a coffee mug, slippers, a chess set, and a toothbrush were all he owned. 20. The actors dressed as pirates exited the stage.

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Simple and Complete Subjects 2c.

The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.

The complete subject consists of the simple subject and any word or word groups used to modify the simple subject. SIMPLE SUBJECT A summer trip to the beaches of sunny Thailand sounds wonderful. COMPLETE SUBJECT A summer trip to the beaches of sunny Thailand sounds wonderful.

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline the complete subject once and the simple subject twice. Example 1. Doesn’t every student in this classroom like to exercise?

1. Regular exercise helps prevent certain diseases. 2. People in excellent health also feel better emotionally. 3. Sedentary people risk developing health problems. 4. Sensible, safe, low-impact exercise is ideal. 5. The capacity of the lungs to take in air can be increased. 6. With exercise, a person’s muscles can grow stronger. 7. A consistent exercise regimen helps people stay in shape. 8. Top athletes pay close attention to their exercise routines. 9. Everyone, not just top athletes, needs to be physically active. 10. Even the best-conditioned athletes should stretch before a workout. 11. Proper, careful stretching helps prevent injuries. 12. People young and old need to exercise each day. 13. Do your high school classmates exercise? 14. Even simple, everyday activities like climbing stairs are good for you. 15. Low-impact workouts include walking, swimming, and cycling. 16. People with health conditions should talk to their doctors first. 17. Your doctor or physical therapist may be able to design an exercise program just for you. 18. Some daily form of exercise can improve your endurance. 19. The flow of oxygen to the heart can be increased. 20. What a difference a little exercise can make!

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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for CHAPTER 2: THE PARTS OF A SENTENCE

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page 85

Simple and Complete Predicates 2d. The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject. The complete predicate consists of the simple predicate and all of the words used to modify the simple predicate and complete its meaning. SIMPLE PREDICATE The cheering fans were parading around the stadium floor. COMPLETE PREDICATE The cheering fans were parading around the stadium floor.

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline the complete predicate once and the simple predicate twice. Example 1. After two hours, the doctors finished the surgical operation.

1. Gary, Joan, and Lisa want their own company. 2. This new museum will certainly attract more visitors. 3. Will they do more research into the proposed ecology initiative? 4. I was born in the small California coastal town of Mendocino. 5. The perfect sandwich needs mustard and mayonnaise on two slices of rye bread. 6. An innovative, unusual work of art can provoke thought. 7. Is the science project focusing on the latest developments in energy conservation? 8. Phillip does not give in easily.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

9. In the morning, the tour group will begin a train trip through Mexico’s Copper Canyon. 10. The antique lamp seems dignified and grand. 11. Can you see the playing field from the upper level of the stadium? 12. Carpeting is needed only in the cabin’s bedrooms and hallway. 13. The black mastiff in the backyard is running along the fence. 14. We bought these tasty apricots at the store. 15. After midnight, the moon crept out from behind the clouds. 16. Truck drivers travel long distances with their payloads. 17. The delivery from the sporting goods store was late as always. 18. Among the professor’s many reference books were ten dictionaries for ten different languages. 19. Next to my cat sat a tiny stuffed mouse. 20. When will the ceremony in the school auditorium end?

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Complete and Simple Subjects and Predicates 2c.

The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.

The complete subject consists of the simple subject and any word or word groups used to modify the subject. 2d. The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject. The complete predicate consists of the simple predicate and all of the words used to modify the simple predicate and to complete its meaning.

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline the complete subject once and the complete predicate twice. Then, circle and label the simple subject (SS) and the simple predicate (SP). SS SP Example 1. The small, isolated nation of Iceland is a republic with a long and proud history.

1. Before the tenth century, not many foreigners had visited Iceland. 2. One of the early Norse settlers was Eric the Red. 3. A kind of parliament, the Althing was established in 930. 4. The island nation had much turmoil in its early days. 5. The stories of early Icelanders are recorded in long narratives called sagas. 6. One famous saga is called the Laxdaela Saga. 7. Pirates from other countries often raided the coastal towns. 8. In the late 1800s, a measure of stability returned to the island. 9. For centuries, the small nation of Iceland remained under the Danish crown. 10. During World War II, the Allied forces sent troops to Iceland in case of a German attack. 11. Toward the end of the war came an almost unanimous Icelandic vote for independence from Denmark.

12. The people of Iceland, nearly all highly literate, are some of the world’s most avid readers. 13. The oldest book club in Iceland was founded in 1816. 14. The fishing industry is one of Iceland’s most important. 15. Only about one fourth of the island is suitable for human habitation. 16. Many of Iceland’s two hundred volcanoes are active to this day. 17. In 1963, a new island was formed by volcanoes off the southern coast. 18. The island was named Surtsey after Sutur, the god of fire in Icelandic mythology. 19. Deep canyons, called fjords, cut into the island’s coasts. 20. The island’s residents sometimes keep warm in the natural hot springs.

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pages 86–87

Compound Subjects and Verbs A 2e. A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb.

2f.

A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject.

COMPOUND SUBJECT Terence, Michelle, and Alan are going to be late. COMPOUND VERB They had stopped and bought flowers on their way.

EXERCISE A In the following sentences, underline the compound subjects. Example 1. Phillip, Kate, and Spot left an hour ago.

1. Chocolate and strawberry are the two flavors available. 2. Jim, his sister, Louise, and I went to the Grand Canyon. 3. Will the Cougars or the Rockets win the regional championship? 4. Jennifer and Amy took the couch, the bookshelf, and the floor lamp. 5. Carter and his dog swam across the lake. 6. My ankle and knee ache because of the workout. 7. The reporter and his editor discussed the committee’s findings. 8. Wind and rain, not to mention hail, made the trip hazardous.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

9. In the meantime, Kenny and I put on our hats and boots. 10. Eugene, Noah, Harold, Louis, Glen, and Paul slept on the bus.

EXERCISE B In the following sentences, underline the compound verbs. Example 1. Would you rather run or swim today?

11. The quarterback passed the football and ran for more than 200 yards. 12. Can your cat meow and purr at the same time? 13. Carla took the money and flew to Hawaii for a much-needed vacation. 14. Kelly will study and memorize the material. 15. My brother found an old radio and donated it to the Salvation Army.

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Compound Subjects and Verbs B 2e. A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb.

2f.

A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject.

COMPOUND SUBJECT Glenda and Tido had a great time at the club’s annual banquet. COMPOUND VERB They ate dinner, watched the awards ceremony, and spoke to the

president of the club.

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline the compound subjects once and the compound verbs twice. Example 1. The trials and tribulations they endured did not frighten or deter them.

1. Did you and Carla fly or drive to New Mexico? 2. Bob and his father ate heartily and enjoyed themselves at the Thanksgiving dinner. 3. Sally and I knocked on the door and called through the window. 4. Paper clips and rubber bands bind and organize my documents and notes. 5. He or she should not add or delete any information in this essay. 6. When did James and Brooke win the tennis match and advance to the next level? 7. Before the game, the coach and the players stretched and waited in the locker room. 8. Gabe, Rochine, and the other club members planned and organized the awards ceremony. 9. Would you and your brother rather prepare lunch or wash the dishes? 10. In the triathlon, professional athletes and novice competitors run, bike, and swim. 11. My brother and my father both went to Yale and studied architecture. 12. Violet and sage are my favorite colors and appear in most of my artwork. 13. My cousin and I mostly slept and watched TV. 14. From the top of the volcano, lava and ash surged and threatened the campers. 15. Jake and I found the fossil and gave it to the geology teacher. 16. Jennifer, Darla, Sandi, and Ben are competing and have been selected as our four finalists. 17. In the gymnasium, retired teachers and former students congregated and conversed. 18. Both Wyoming and Idaho have rugged terrain and are great camping destinations. 19. The employees and volunteers must wipe and polish every single statue in the exhibit. 20. Will you and your twin brother please be quiet during the movie or go outside to play?

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pages 87-88

Finding Subjects in Sentences To find the subject of a sentence, ask Who? or What? before the verb. EXAMPLES The train was delayed. [What was delayed? The train was delayed.] Anna and Paul voted for me. [Who voted for me? Anna and Paul voted for me.] Go to your room! [Who should go? The understood you should go.]

EXERCISE In the following sentences, underline each simple subject and indicate whether it answers the question Who? or What? If the understood you is the subject, write you after the sentence. Who Example 1. When is the varsity debate team leaving town?

1. A partial eclipse of the moon will take place tonight. 2. Carry the books, please. 3. What year did your cousin buy his new computer? 4. A panel of experts oversaw the research. 5. From the crashing waves came a veteran surfer. 6. Are these two coffee mugs clean? 7. My house is on Far West Boulevard. 8. Under the tree behind the house was Kerry’s missing bicycle. 9. As for the old tenement building, several influential council members want it destroyed. 10. Hand that eraser to me, please. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

11. Many classic lunchboxes from the ’60s are now very valuable. 12. Before the meeting, however, no one on the team had met the volunteers. 13. During the first part of the century, my great-grandmother on my mother’s side worked as a nurse.

14. The condition of the garment was very poor. 15. Last winter, my brothers made several huge snowmen. 16. Here is your new semester class schedule. 17. Are these books on the front shelf for sale? 18. Last night at the track meet, Amy got a first-place trophy. 19. According to the legend in the fairy tale book, the brave and honest knight triumphed. 20. Growing three inches in one year is no surprise for Tom.

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Complements 2g. A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb. Complements may be nouns, pronouns, or adjectives. Be careful not to mistake an adverb for a complement. The object of a prepositional phrase is not a complement. COMPLEMENT John Irving and Alice Walker are novelists. ADVERB The firefighter acted bravely. OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION The audience cheered for the cast during three curtain calls.

EXERCISE Identify the underlined word in each of the following sentences as a complement, an adverb, or the object of a preposition. Write C for complement, A for adverb, or OP for object of a preposition. A Example 1. Susan reacted modestly when she was presented an award.

1. Managing money and being financially responsible are challenging goals. 2. Courage under stress is essential for an emergency-rescue worker. 3. Rafael considered carefully his choices of universities to attend in the fall. 4. The journalist’s reasons were many for keeping his inside sources confidential. 5. Did Mariah speak calmly during the debate round? 6. The Koran is the sacred scripture of the Muslim faith. 7. The list of prizes for the geography quiz show seems quite impressive. 8. They sent me the information in the mail. 9. My favorite documentary show on PBS starts at eight o’clock in the evening. Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

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for CHAPTER 2: THE PARTS OF A SENTENCE

CLASS

10. I think I drew the peach accurately in my still-life drawing class. 11. It seems that the trouble with the car is the transmission. 12. Did she throw the ball perfectly into the hoop in the last quarter of the game? 13. Through the front door the hornets flew in a whirlwind. 14. I gave my book to Ralph’s sister to read during her bus trip. 15. My mom bought contact lenses for me when I joined the basketball team. 16. I left the faucet running in the upstairs bathtub this morning! 17. Why not take the book with you to school? 18. The judge declared her candidacy for state office. 19. Your dad seems happy that he won the amateur golf tournament. 20. Until recently, Joe drove his truck to Philadelphia at the end of each month.

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Direct Objects 2h. A direct object is a complement that tells who or what receives the action of a verb or shows the result of the action. A direct object may be a noun, a pronoun, or a word group that functions as a noun. To find a direct object, ask Whom? or What? after a transitive verb. Direct objects may be compound. DIRECT OBJECT Edgar chose the easiest task. [Chose what? Task.] Your grandmother misses you and your sister. [Misses whom? You and your sister.]

EXERCISE Underline the direct objects in the following sentences. Then, indicate whether the direct object answers Whom? or What? what Example 1. Will this class include a section on short-film production?

1. John Le Carré writes suspenseful spy stories about international intrigue. 2. You are eating a nutritious meal this morning. 3. Elizabeth sold me her computer for a very reasonable price. 4. Ramón entertained Sam and me with an account of his vacation. 5. Andrés Segovia transcribed pages of classical music for the guitar. 6. After a lengthy campaign process, the students elected Miguel. 7. Doing word puzzles makes Tien and his grandfather happy.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


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