Writing a research paper is an important skill you need to learn. In order to do a paper properly you need to keep a few things in mind which will be outlined below. The most important thing is to be complete, be consistent and be thorough. Remember, the process is the important part. Before we begin, keep the following terms in mind:
Plagiarism: This is what you want to avoid. Plagiarism means using someone else's work and claiming it as your own. In reality it is a crime. Plagiarism can occur on purpose as well as by accident, either way it is wrong and must be avoided. If you plagiarize by accident the same penalties apply. The way we avoid plagiarism is by citing sources. After the paper is written and the sources have been cited then we must create a works citedpage. If the proper format for citing sources and the works cited page is followed then plagiarism can be avoided.
Citing Sources: Most high schools use the MLA (Modern Language Association) format. Check with your teacher to see if this format is acceptable in your school. Sources in these formats use the in line citation format. What this means is that anytime you cite a source, whether it be a direct quote or a paraphrase you must then insert an in line citation into the text of the paper. Typically the in line citation would consist of the authors last name followed by the page number with the entire citation in brackets. Here is an example: (Winthrop 24) The sentence period comes after the citation. More is to follow on proper in line citation format after this introduction.
Paraphrase: A paraphrase is an important part of writing a paper. Simply put the paraphrase is when you read another authors work and put it into your own words. It is also considered paraphrasing when you use statistics and research from another source. This is the most common citation in a paper. Proper paraphrasing is an art. This does not mean changing a few words around. It means taking the authors ideas, summarizing them into your own words and then using them. Of course you must cite every paraphrase with an in line citation. Paraphrases are mostly used to summarize paragraphs and main themes. Paraphrases are also used to cite statistics and other information. YOU DO NOT USE QUOTATION MARKS WHEN PARAPHRASING. More is to follow on citing the paraphrase.
Direct Quote: A direct quote is when you use another persons words directly in your paper. Knowing when to use a direct quote is important. Do not quote everything you want to say. Most things should be paraphrased. Use a direct quote when you want the reader to read an important historical line or it is something someone said that is important. Use direct quotes sparingly, there should only be a few in the paper and they better be good ones. The key difference in citing a direct quote is that you must put quotation marks around the sentence and then cite at the end. IF YOU FAIL TO USE QUOTATION MARKS AROUND A DIRECT QUOTE YOU ARE SAYING YOU WROTE THE SENTENCE. THIS IS PLAGIARISM!!! More information on direct quotes and direct quotes over four lines to follow.
Works Cited Page: This is the last page of your paper where you list, using the format shown below, all the books, articles, web sites, SIRS articles, magazines articles, etc. you have used. This must be done in the proper format. Proper format will be outlined in the following pages.
I highly recommend the following sites:
Citing A Paraphrase A PARAPHRASE IS:
- your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.
- one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source.
- a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.
Here is a sample paraphrase:
Original Text: (From Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990): 15.)
While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement in skyscraper engineering so far, it's unlikely that architects and engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building. The question is: Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel claims that existing technology could produce a 500-story building.
How much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise than worlds tallest building, the Sears Tower, is unknown. The design of one twice as tall is already on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over 500 stories (Bachman 15).
Note the following. The writer never uses the exact words of the author therefore there is no need to use quotation marks. The writer summarizes, uses his or her own words and then cites the source at the end. Sometimes a paraphrase will be large and must be broken up. A good rule of thumb is to break up a paragraph that is completely paraphrased into two or three citations. The writer has given credit to the author and thus has avoided plagiarism. Now the author would just continue writing after double spacing.
Your paper will more or less be paraphrase after paraphrase linked together by your own words and analysis. You need to introduce, analyze and put into context the paraphrases you use. This is the nature of the research paper, after all, you are not the expert, they are. If you cite from the same author in the very next citation you do not have to put the authors last name in the in line citation, just the page number.
How much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise than worlds tallest building, the Sears Tower, is unknown. The design of one twice as tall is already on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over 500 stories (Bachman 15). As a matter of fact the architect William LeMessurier claims he designed a skyscraper that is over a half a mile tall (15).
Citing a Direct Quote
Citing a direct quote uses the same form as citing a paraphrase. The differences is that you are using someone else's words directly. In order to avoid plagiarism you MUST USE QUOTATION MARKS unless the direct quote is over four lines.
Here is a sample direct quote:
Original Text: (From "Captain Cousteau," Audubon (May 1990):17.
"The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity."
The importance of the sea to the environment of the earth cannot be underestimated. "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate (Cousteau 17)."
Note the following. The first sentence is neither a paraphrase or a quote. It is the writers own words. The writer is introducing and placing the Cousteau quote into context.
Direct Quote Over Four Lines:
Use these VERY RARELY. A great speech or famous quote might justify using a direct quote over four lines. To do this skip a line, indent five spaces on both sides of the quote, single space and use italics. Place the citation on the next line to the lower right of the quote. Go to the next line and then continue with your paper. DO NOT USE QUOTATION MARKS.
Abraham Lincoln said in his famous Gettysburg Address:
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
What Lincoln was saying was that those that died had died for a cause. They had died to preserve the Union and to keep the United States together (67 - 68).
Note the following. The long quote follows the format prescribed above. The quote is also followed by a paraphrase from the same author.The citation is the name of the book you found the quote in, not the name of the writer of the quote, if they are different. You must however say who made the quote in prefacing or concluding use of the quote.
When the book has no author use a keyword from the title. Usually the first word in the citation. When there are two book by the same author designate one as book one and the other as book two. For example: (Winthrop1 282) and (Winthrop2 58-71).
Writing The Works Cited Page
Your works cited page is an essential part of the process. The works cited page is the last page of your paper and it tells the reader where he or she may find the sources cited within your paper. It is essential you use the correct form. Remember a few thing when organizing the works cited page:
- The works cited page must be labeled Works Cited Page. The label should be at the top center of the page.
- The sources on the page must be listed IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER BY THE AUTHORS LAST NAME.
- The first line of each entry is flush to the margin, all consequent lines within the entry must be indented five spaces.
- Entries in the works cited page should be single spaced. Double space in between entries.
Books and Reference Books
Frye, Northrup. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. New York: Harper Collins, 1957.
Two or Three Authors
Gesell, Arnold, and Frances L. Wilson. Child Development: An Introduction to the Study of
Human Growth. New York: Macmillan, 1960.
Four or More Authors
Spiller, Robert, et al. Literary History of the United States. New York:
No Author Named
Encyclopedia of Photography. New York: Crown, 1984.
A Work With More Than One Volume
Smith, Page. A New Age Now Begins. 2 vols. New York: McGraw, 1976.
A Work With An Editor
Swisher, Cleary, ed. The Spread of Islam. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999.
Two Or More Books By The Same Person
Boroff, Marie. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New York: Norton, 1967.
---. Wallace Stevens: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 1963.
Newspapers, Magazines, Journals, and Other Sources
A journal or magazine whose page numbers continue to the next issue (continuous pagination)
Deluch, Max. "Mind from Matter." American Scholar July 1978: 339-53.
A journal whose pages start anew with each issue
Barthe, Frederick, and Joseph Murphy. "Alcoholism in Fiction." Kansas Quarterly
August 1981: 30-37.
A weekly, biweekly, or monthly magazine
Miller, Tyler. "The Vietnam War: The Executioner." Newsweek 13 Nov 1978: 70.
An article in a newspaper
Strout, Richard L. "Another Bicentennial." Christian Science Monitor 10 Nov. 1978: 27.
An anonymous article
"Drunkproofing Automobiles." Time 6 Apr. 1987: 37.
An article from a reference book
"Mandarin." Encyclopedia Americana. 1980 ed.
A signed article from a reference book
Coble, Parks M., Jr. "Chiang Kai Shek." Encyclopedia of Asian History.
Ed. Ainslee T. Embree. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988.
A government publication
United States Dept. of Labor. Bureau of Statistics. "Dictionary of Occupational
Titles." 4th ed. Washington: GPO, 1977.
A radio or television program
"The First American." Narr. Hugh Downs. Writ. and prod. Craig Fisher.
NBC News Special. KNBC, Los Angeles. 21 Mar. 1968.
Periodical information on CD-ROM
A source from NEWSBANK
McCullough, Peggy. "Juvenile Drug Use Prompts Test Push." (Memphis, TN)
The Commercial Appeal. 15 Jan. 1987. Newsbank: Health (1987):
fiche 3, grid G2.
A source from NY Times Ondisc
Angier, Natalie. "Chemists Learn Why Vegetables Are Good for You."
New York Times 13 Apr. 1993, late ed.: C1. New York Times Ondisc.
CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest Oct. 1993.
A source from Information Access
Shearson Lehman Brothers, Inc. "Reebok: Company Report." 29 July 1993.
General Business File. CD-ROM. Information Access. Dec. 1993.
A Source from InfoTrac
Anderson, George M. "Organizing Against the Death Penalty." America 3 Jan. 1988: 10+.
InfoTrac: Student Edition. CD-ROM. Gale Group. Nov. 2000
A Source from SIRS
Paliokas, Kathleen. "Trying Uniforms on for Size." American School Board Journal
May 1996: 33-35. School. Vol. 2. Art. 46. SIRS Researcher. CD-ROM.
SIRS. Inc., 1999
Other Electronic Sources
Danford, Tom. "Monday Greetings." E-mail to Terry Craig. 13 Sept. 1993.
Shaumann, Thomas Michael. "Re: Technical German." 5 Aug. 1994.
Online posting. Newsgroup comp.edu.languages.natural.natural. 7 Sept. 1994.
Material accessed through a computer service
Guidelines for Family Television Viewing. Urbana: ERIC Clearinghouse
on Elementary and Early Childhood Educ., 1990.
ERIC. Online. BRS. 22 Nov. 1993.
"Foreign Weather: European Cities." Accu-Data. Online. Dow Jones
News Retrieval. 20 Aug. 1993.
Web site - Article in an Online Newspaper, Magazine or Newswire
"Endangered Species Act Upheld." AP Online. 22 June 1998. 5 Dec. 1999
Note: the first date in an online entry, if it is available, is the "date published" and the second date is the date accessed. If there is only one date listed it is assumed it is the date accessed.
Web site - Information directly from a home page
The Hemlock Society. 14 Dec. 1999 <http://www.hemlock.org>
Web site - Information on a section of a site with a link from the home page
Miller, David. "Abolition of Slavery." Social Studies Help Center. 26 Jan. 2001. 29 Jan. 2001.
"NYCLU Opposes Internet Censorship in the Schools." NYCLU, New York Civil
Liberties Union. 9 Nov. 1999. 21 Dec. 1999 <http://www.nyclu.org>
Style and Other Hints
- Make sure your grammar, punctuation and spelling is perfect. Have someone else read and proofread your paper for you. We often do not see our own mistakes.
- Make sure you answer your thesis, stay organized and make sense!
- Never use "I" or write in the first person. Always write in the third person.
- Never begin a sentence with "because," "and," "however," or other linking words.
- Do not wait for the last minute. Your research will be shoddy and your presentation poor.
- Use a computer word processor. The enable you to be neat and to make changes. If you don't have one start early so you can use the computers available at school.
- Keep your paper on disk so that you can make changes and store the disk in a safe place. You may even want to have a copy of the disk for security.
- Make sure you organize yourself when writing the paper. Keep your notes together with the bibliographic information you will need. You don't want to forget where you found your information.
- Do not throw anything away until after your paper has been returned, you may need to defend yourself against plagiarism.
- Do a professional job, my expectations are very high!
- Putting together a research paper is like a puzzle. You have to fit together all of your research, quotes and paraphrases into a well organized document.
Back To Home Page
If your instructor has specific requirements for the format of your research paper, check them before preparing your final draft. When you submit your paper, be sure to keep a secure copy.
The most common formatting is presented in the sections below:
Except for the running head (see below), leave margins of one inch at the top and bottom and on both sides of the text. If you plan to submit a printout on paper larger than 8½ by 11 inches, do not print the text in an area greater than 6½ by 9 inches.
Always choose an easily readable typeface (e.g., Times New Roman) in which the regular type style contrasts clearly with the italic, and set it to a standard size (e.g., 12 points). Do not justify the lines of text at the right margin; turn off any automatic hyphenation feature in your writing program. Double-space the entire research paper, including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Indent the first line of a paragraph half an inch from the left margin. Indent set-off quotations half an inch as well (for examples, see 76–80 in the MLA Handbook). Leave one space after a period or other concluding punctuation mark, unless your instructor prefers two spaces.
Heading and Title
Beginning one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, double-spacing the lines. On a new, double-spaced line, center the title (fig. 1). Do not italicize or underline your title, put it in quotation marks or boldface, or type it in all capital letters. Follow the rules for capitalization in the MLA Handbook (67–68), and italicize only the words that you would italicize in the text.
Do not use a period after your title or after any heading in the paper (e.g., Works Cited). Begin your text on a new, double-spaced line after the title, indenting the first line of the paragraph half an inch from the left margin.
A research paper does not normally need a title page, but if the paper is a group project, create a title page and list all the authors on it instead of in the header on page 1 of your essay. If your teacher requires a title page in lieu of or in addition to the header, format it according to the instructions you are given.
Running Head with Page Numbers
Number all pages consecutively throughout the research paper in the upper right-hand corner, half an inch from the top and flush with the right margin. Type your last name, followed by a space, before the page number (fig. 2). Do not use the abbreviation p. before the page number or add a period, a hyphen, or any other mark or symbol. Your writing program will probably allow you to create a running head of this kind that appears automatically on every page. Some teachers prefer that no running head appear on the first page. Follow your teacher’s preference.
Placement of the List of Works Cited
The list of works cited appears at the end of the paper, after any endnotes. Begin the list on a new page. The list contains the same running head as the main text. The page numbering in the running head continues uninterrupted throughout. For example, if the text of your research paper (including any endnotes) ends on page 10, the works-cited list begins on page 11. Center the title, Works Cited, an inch from the top of the page (fig. 3). (If the list contains only one entry, make the heading Work Cited.) Double-space between the title and the first entry. Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines half an inch from the left margin. This format is sometimes called hanging indention, and you can set your writing program to create it automatically for a group of paragraphs. Hanging indention makes alphabetical lists easier to use. Double-space the entire list. Continue it on as many pages as necessary.
Tables and Illustrations
Place tables and illustrations as close as possible to the parts of the text to which they relate. A table is usually labeled Table, given an arabic numeral, and titled. Type both label and title flush left on separate lines above the table, and capitalize them as titles (do not use all capital letters). Give the source of the table and any notes immediately below the table in a caption. To avoid confusion between notes to the text and notes to the table, designate notes to the table with lowercase letters rather than with numerals. Double-space throughout; use dividing lines as needed (fig. 4).
Any other type of illustrative visual material—for example, a photograph, map, line drawing, graph, or chart—should be labeled Figure (usually abbreviated Fig.), assigned an arabic numeral, and given a caption: “Fig. 1. Mary Cassatt, Mother and Child, Wichita Art Museum.” A label and caption ordinarily appear directly below the illustration and have the same one-inch margins as the text of the paper (fig. 5). If the caption of a table or illustration provides complete information about the source and the source is not cited in the text, no entry for the source in the works-cited list is necessary.
Musical illustrations are labeled Example (usually abbreviated Ex.), assigned an arabic numeral, and given a caption: “Ex. 1. Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky, Symphony no. 6 in B, opus 74 (Pathétique), finale.” A label and caption ordinarily appear directly below the example and have the same one-inch margins as the text of the paper (fig. 6).
Paper and Printing
If you print your paper, use only white, 8½-by-11-inch paper of good quality. If you lack 8½-by-11-inch paper, choose the closest size available. Use a high-quality printer. Some instructors prefer papers printed on a single side because they’re easier to read, but others allow printing on both sides as a means of conserving paper; follow your instructor’s preference.
Corrections and Insertions on Printouts
Proofread and correct your research paper carefully before submitting it. If you are checking a printout and find a mistake, reopen the document, make the appropriate revisions, and reprint the corrected page or pages. Be sure to save the changed file. Spelling checkers and usage checkers are helpful when used with caution. They do not find all errors and sometimes label correct material as erroneous. If your instructor permits corrections on the printout, write them neatly and legibly in ink directly above the lines involved, using carets (⁁) to indicate where they go. Do not use the margins or write a change below the line it affects. If corrections on any page are numerous or substantial, revise your document and reprint the page.
Binding a Printed Paper
Pages of a printed research paper may get misplaced or lost if they are left unattached or merely folded down at a corner. Although a plastic folder or some other kind of binder may seem an attractive finishing touch, most instructors find such devices a nuisance in reading and commenting on students’ work. Many prefer that a paper be secured with a simple paper or binder clip, which can be easily removed and restored. Others prefer the use of staples.
There are at present no commonly accepted standards for the electronic submission of research papers. If you are asked to submit your paper electronically, obtain from your teacher guidelines for formatting, mode of submission (e.g., by e-mail, on a Web site), and so forth and follow them closely.
Designed to be printed out and used in the classroom. From the MLA Handbook, 8th ed., published by the Modern Language Association.