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The TLS 1.0 encryption protocol is disabled across the University's web services. Disabling TLS 1.0 prevents it from being used to access Warwick websites via an insecure web browser or application. We've made this change to keep the University's websites safe and secure.
What do I need to do?
When accessing websites using a web browser, ensure you use the latest available version of the browser – whether that is Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari or another browser. Using the latest version keeps you safe online because you're using the most up-to-date security settings.
Why is this happening?
Although TLS 1.0, when configured properly, has no known security vulnerabilities, newer protocols are designed better to address the potential for new vulnerabilities.
The PCI Data Security Standard 3.1 recommends disabling “early TLS”:
“SSL and early TLS are not considered strong cryptography and cannot be used as a security control after June 30, 2016 [without a mitigation strategy for disabling it before June 2018].
The best response is to disable SSL entirely and migrate to a more modern encryption protocol, which at the time of publication is a minimum of TLS v1.1, although entities are strongly encouraged to consider TLS v1.2.”
We need to be PCI-compliant to take online payments at the University. It is not sufficient to merely disable TLS 1.0 on our transaction tracking system as the requirement extends to any system that initiates a payment, including car parking, printer credits, the Warwick website, etc.
What Do Essay Contests Consider Part of Their Character Count?
How to Avoid Getting Disqualified
Editors will often require specific character or word counts for your work. They do this for a variety of reasons—to save themselves from having to read entire novels, to test how clearly and concisely an essayist can write. No matter what the reason is for the assigned character or word limit, you must comply. The first thing an editor will check is your character or word count and if your essay is too long, it will be immediately disqualified.
How Essay Contests Define Characters
Characters are the basic building blocks of writing. Whether you are composing a writing contest entry, a Google headline or a tweet, the number of characters you use in your writing is important. So what counts as a character? Do spaces count? What about commas and periods?
Most of the time, spaces, letters of the alphabet, numbers, and punctuation all count toward a character limit. For example, if you are composing a tweet, you will be limited to 280 characters, and everything you type counts.
Some writing contests may not count spaces or punctuation toward their character count. Check what the contest rules say. If the writing contest rules don't explicitly state that some characters are excluded from the character count, play it safe by counting them all. It's better to trim a few letters from your entry than to be disqualified for exceeding the character count.
How to Tell How Many Characters Your Entry Has
If you're not sure whether your entry is under the allowed character limit, don't worry—there are several easy ways to count your characters:
- Use a Word Processor. Compose your entry into a word processor like MS Word or Apple Pages and click on the Word Count feature to see the number of characters.
- Use a Free Character Counter. There are several websites that offer a free character counter, where you just need to copy-paste your text to check the number of characters written. Some even let you specify whether spaces should be counted or not. LetterCount.com is a popular option, but you can do a Google search for "character counters" to see all of your choices.
- Use a Writer-Specific Processor. Tools like Scrivener automatically track your character and word count at the bottom or side of your screen for you. If you need to swap out longer words for shorter synonyms, the clicks to check your character count after each change can add up in a normal word processor.
Shrinking Your Character Count
If your essay contest entry has too many characters, it's time to edit aggressively. Go back through the essay to see where you can be more concise. Be ruthless about shrinking your character count by removing unnecessary repetition and by making your prose as clean and smooth as possible. When you can no longer sacrifice words without losing important content, it's time to look at the words themselves. Are you using character-heavy words that could be effectively replaced by shorter synonyms?
A tool like thesaurus.com will help you find those more concise synonyms.
When Character Counts Are Usually Used
Most of the time, short writing is limited by characters. Longer pieces of writing usually use a word count as a limit. For example, a 500-word essay would be about a single page long, whereas a 500 character essay would be about 100 to 150 words long.