Sports Essay In Telugu Language Origin

Telugu script (Telugu: తెలుగు లిపి, translit. Telugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states. The Telugu script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts and to some extent the Gondi language. It gained prominence during the Eastern Chalukyas also known as Vengi Chalukya era. It shares many similarities with its sibling Kannada script, as it has evolved from Kadamba and Bhattiprolu scripts of the Brahmi family. Both Adikavi Pampa of Kannada and Adikavi Nannayya of Telugu hail from families native to the Vengi province.

Derivation from Brahmi script[edit]

The Brahmi script used by Mauryan kings eventually reached the Krishna River delta and would give rise to the Bhattiprolu script found on an urn purported to contain Lord Buddha's relics.[2][3]Buddhism spread to east Asia from the nearby ports of Ghantasala and Masulipatnam (ancient Maisolos of Ptolemy and Masalia of Periplus).[4] The Bhattiprolu Brahmi script evolved into the Telugu script by 5th century C.E.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

The Muslim historian and scholar Al-Biruni referred to both the Telugu language as well as its script as "Andhri".[12]

Letters[edit]

Telugu uses eighteen vowels, each of which has both an independent form and a diacritic form used with consonants to create syllables. The language makes a distinction between short and long vowels.

IndependentWith క (k)ISOIPAIndependentWith క (k)ISOIPA
a/a/కాā/aː/
కిi/i/కీī/iː/
కుu/u/కూū/uː/
కృ/ru/కౄr̥̄/ruː/
కౢకౣl̥̄
కెe/e/కేē/eː/
కైai/aj/కొo/o/
కోō/oː/కౌau/aw/
అంకంఅఃకః

The independent form is used when the vowel occurs at the beginning of a word or syllable, or is a complete syllable in itself (example: a, u, o). The diacritic form is added to consonants (represented by the dotted circle) to form a consonant-vowel syllable (example: ka, kru, mo). అ does not have a diacritic form, because this vowel is already inherent in all of the consonants. The other diacritic vowels are added to consonants to change their pronunciation to that of the vowel.

Examples:

ఖ + ఈ (ీ) → ఖీ/kʰa/ + /iː/ → /kʰiː/
జ + ఉ (ు) → జు/dʒa/ + /u/ → /dʒu/
CharacterISOIPACharacterISOIPACharacterISOIPACharacterISOIPACharacterISOIPA
k/k/kh/kʰ/g/ɡ/gh/ɡʱ//ŋ/
c/tʃ/ch/tʃʰ/j/dʒ/jh/dʒʱ/ñ/ɲ/
/ʈ/ṭh/ʈʰ//ɖ/ḍh/ɖʱ//ɳ/
t/t/th/tʰ/d/d/dh/dʱ/n/n/
p/p/ph/pʰ/b/b/bh/bʱ/m/m/
y/j/r/r/l/l/v/ʋ//ɭ/
ś/ʃ//ʂ/s/s/h/h//ɽ/

Other diacritics[edit]

There are also several other diacritics used in the Telugu script. ్ mutes the vowel of a consonant, so that only the consonant is pronounced. ం and ఁ nasalize the vowels or syllables to which they are attached. ః adds a voiceless breath after the vowel or syllable it is attached to.

CharacterISOCharacterISOCharacterISOCharacterISO
అంaṁఅఁan̆అఃaḥక్k

Examples:

క + ్ → క్   [ka] + [∅] → [k]
క + ఁ → కఁ[ka] + [n] → [kan̆]
క + ం → కం[ka] + [m] → [kaṁ]
క + ః → కః[ka] + [h] → [kaḥ]

Places of articulation [edit]

The places of articulation (passive) are classified as five.

Kaṇṭhya : Velar
Tālavya : Palatal
Mūrdhanya : Retroflex
Dantya : Dental
Ōshtya : Labial

Apart from that, other places are combinations of the above five places.

Dantōsthya : Labio-dental (E.g.: v)
Kantatālavya : E.g.: Diphthong e
Kantōsthya : labial-velar (E.g.: Diphthong o)

The places of articulation (active) are classified as three, they are

Jihvāmūlam : tongue root, for velar
Jihvāmadhyam : tongue body, for palatal
Jihvāgram : tip of tongue, for cerebral and dental
Adhōṣṭa : lower lip, for labial

The attempt of articulation of consonants(Uccāraṇa Prayatnam) is of two types,

Bāhya Prayatnam : External effort
Spṛṣṭa : Plosive
Īshat Spṛṣṭa : Approximant
Īshat Saṃvṛta : Fricative
Abhyantara Prayatnam : Internal effort
Alpaprānam : Unaspirated
Mahāprānam : Aspirated
Śvāsa : Unvoiced
Nādam : Voiced

Articulation of consonants[edit]

Articulation of consonants will be a logical combination of components in the two prayatnams. The below table gives a view upon articulation of consonants.

Prayatna NiyamāvalīKanthya
(jihvāmūlam)
Tālavya
(jihvāmadhyam)
Mūrdhanya
(jihvāgram)
Dantya
(jihvāgram)
DantōṣṭyaŌshtya
(adhōsta)
Sparśa, Śvāsa, Alpaprānamka (క)ca (చ)ṭa (ట)ta (త)pa (ప)
Sparśa, Śvāsa, Mahāprānamkha (ఖ)cha (ఛ)ṭha (ఠ)tha (థ)pha (ఫ)
Sparśa, Nāda, Alpaprānamga (గ)ja (జ)ḍa (డ)da (ద)ba (బ)
Sparśa, Nāda, Mahāprānamgha (ఘ)jha (ఝ)ḍha (ఢ)dha (ధ)bha (భ)
Sparśa, Nādam, Alpaprānam,
Anunāsikam, Dravam, Avyāhata
ṅa (ఙ)ña (ఞ)ṇa (ణ)na (న)ma (మ)
Antastha, Nādam, Alpaprāṇam,
Drava, Avyāhata
ya (య)ra (ర)
(Lunthita)
la (ల)
(Pārśvika)
va (వ)
Ūṣman, Śvāsa, Mahāprāṇam, AvyāhataVisargaśa (శ)ṣa (ష)sa (స)
Ūshman, Nādam, Mahāprānam, Avyāhataha (హ)

Consonant Conjuncts[edit]

The Telugu script has generally regular conjuncts, with trailing consonants taking a subjoined form, often losing the v-shaped headstroke. The following table shows all two-consonant and one three-consonant conjunct, but individual conjuncts may differ between fonts.

క్ష
క్కక్ఖక్గక్ఘక్ఙక్చక్ఛక్జక్ఝక్ఞక్టక్ఠక్డక్ఢక్ణక్తక్థక్దక్ధక్నక్పక్ఫక్బక్భక్మక్యక్రక్లక్వక్శక్షక్సక్హక్ళక్క్షక్ఱ
ఖ్కఖ్ఖఖ్గఖ్ఘఖ్ఙఖ్చఖ్ఛఖ్జఖ్ఝఖ్ఞఖ్టఖ్ఠఖ్డఖ్ఢఖ్ణఖ్తఖ్థఖ్దఖ్ధఖ్నఖ్పఖ్ఫఖ్బఖ్భఖ్మఖ్యఖ్రఖ్లఖ్వఖ్శఖ్షఖ్సఖ్హఖ్ళఖ్క్షఖ్ఱ
గ్కగ్ఖగ్గగ్ఘగ్ఙగ్చగ్ఛగ్జగ్ఝగ్ఞగ్టగ్ఠగ్డగ్ఢగ్ణగ్తగ్థగ్దగ్ధగ్నగ్పగ్ఫగ్బగ్భగ్మగ్యగ్రగ్లగ్వగ్శగ్షగ్సగ్హగ్ళగ్క్షగ్ఱ
ఘ్కఘ్ఖఘ్గఘ్ఘఘ్ఙఘ్చఘ్ఛఘ్జఘ్ఝఘ్ఞఘ్టఘ్ఠఘ్డఘ్ఢఘ్ణఘ్తఘ్థఘ్దఘ్ధఘ్నఘ్పఘ్ఫఘ్బఘ్భఘ్మఘ్యఘ్రఘ్లఘ్వఘ్శఘ్షఘ్సఘ్హఘ్ళఘ్క్షఘ్ఱ
ఙ్కఙ్ఖఙ్గఙ్ఘఙ్ఙఙ్చఙ్ఛఙ్జఙ్ఝఙ్ఞఙ్టఙ్ఠఙ్డఙ్ఢఙ్ణఙ్తఙ్థఙ్దఙ్ధఙ్నఙ్పఙ్ఫఙ్బఙ్భఙ్మఙ్యఙ్రఙ్లఙ్వఙ్శఙ్షఙ్సఙ్హఙ్ళఙ్క్షఙ్ఱ
చ్కచ్ఖచ్గచ్ఘచ్ఙచ్చచ్ఛచ్జచ్ఝచ్ఞచ్టచ్ఠచ్డచ్ఢచ్ణచ్తచ్థచ్దచ్ధచ్నచ్పచ్ఫచ్బచ్భచ్మచ్యచ్రచ్లచ్వచ్శచ్షచ్సచ్హచ్ళచ్క్షచ్ఱ
ఛ్కఛ్ఖఛ్గఛ్ఘఛ్ఙఛ్చఛ్ఛఛ్జఛ్ఝఛ్ఞఛ్టఛ్ఠఛ్డఛ్ఢఛ్ణఛ్తఛ్థఛ్దఛ్ధఛ్నఛ్పఛ్ఫఛ్బఛ్భఛ్మఛ్యఛ్రఛ్లఛ్వఛ్శఛ్షఛ్సఛ్హఛ్ళఛ్క్షఛ్ఱ
జ్కజ్ఖజ్గజ్ఘజ్ఙజ్చజ్ఛజ్జజ్ఝజ్ఞజ్టజ్ఠజ్డజ్ఢజ్ణజ్తజ్థజ్దజ్ధజ్నజ్పజ్ఫజ్బజ్భజ్మజ్యజ్రజ్లజ్వజ్శజ్షజ్సజ్హజ్ళజ్క్షజ్ఱ
ఝ్కఝ్ఖఝ్గఝ్ఘఝ్ఙఝ్చఝ్ఛఝ్జఝ్ఝఝ్ఞఝ్టఝ్ఠఝ్డఝ్ఢఝ్ణఝ్తఝ్థఝ్దఝ్ధఝ్నఝ్పఝ్ఫఝ్బఝ్భఝ్మఝ్యఝ్రఝ్లఝ్వఝ్శఝ్షఝ్సఝ్హఝ్ళఝ్క్షఝ్ఱ
ఞ్కఞ్ఖఞ్గఞ్ఘఞ్ఙఞ్చఞ్ఛఞ్జఞ్ఝఞ్ఞఞ్టఞ్ఠఞ్డఞ్ఢఞ్ణఞ్తఞ్థఞ్దఞ్ధఞ్నఞ్పఞ్ఫఞ్బఞ్భఞ్మఞ్యఞ్రఞ్లఞ్వఞ్శఞ్షఞ్సఞ్హఞ్ళఞ్క్షఞ్ఱ
ట్కట్ఖట్గట్ఘట్ఙట్చట్ఛట్జట్ఝట్ఞట్టట్ఠట్డట్ఢట్ణట్తట్థట్దట్ధట్నట్పట్ఫట్బట్భట్మట్యట్రట్లట్వట్శట్షట్సట్హట్ళట్క్షట్ఱ
ఠ్కఠ్ఖఠ్గఠ్ఘఠ్ఙఠ్చఠ్ఛఠ్జఠ్ఝఠ్ఞఠ్టఠ్ఠఠ్డఠ్ఢఠ్ణఠ్తఠ్థఠ్దఠ్ధఠ్నఠ్పఠ్ఫఠ్బఠ్భఠ్మఠ్యఠ్రఠ్లఠ్వఠ్శఠ్షఠ్సఠ్హఠ్ళఠ్క్షఠ్ఱ
డ్కడ్ఖడ్గడ్ఘడ్ఙడ్చడ్ఛడ్జడ్ఝడ్ఞడ్టడ్ఠడ్డడ్ఢడ్ణడ్తడ్థడ్దడ్ధడ్నడ్పడ్ఫడ్బడ్భడ్మడ్యడ్రడ్లడ్వడ్శడ్షడ్సడ్హడ్ళడ్క్షడ్ఱ
ఢ్కఢ్ఖఢ్గఢ్ఘఢ్ఙఢ్చఢ్ఛఢ్జఢ్ఝఢ్ఞఢ్టఢ్ఠఢ్డఢ్ఢఢ్ణఢ్తఢ్థఢ్దఢ్ధఢ్నఢ్పఢ్ఫఢ్బఢ్భఢ్మఢ్యఢ్రఢ్లఢ్వఢ్శఢ్షఢ్సఢ్హఢ్ళఢ్క్షఢ్ఱ
ణ్కణ్ఖణ్గణ్ఘణ్ఙణ్చణ్ఛణ్జణ్ఝణ్ఞణ్టణ్ఠణ్డణ్ఢణ్ణణ్తణ్థణ్దణ్ధణ్నణ్పణ్ఫణ్బణ్భణ్మణ్యణ్రణ్లణ్వణ్శణ్షణ్సణ్హణ్ళణ్క్షణ్ఱ
త్కత్ఖత్గత్ఘత్ఙత్చత్ఛత్జత్ఝత్ఞత్టత్ఠత్డత్ఢత్ణత్తత్థత్దత్ధత్నత్పత్ఫత్బత్భత్మత్యత్రత్లత్వత్శత్షత్సత్హత్ళత్క్షత్ఱ
థ్కథ్ఖథ్గథ్ఘథ్ఙథ్చథ్ఛథ్జథ్ఝథ్ఞథ్టథ్ఠథ్డథ్ఢథ్ణథ్తథ్థథ్దథ్ధథ్నథ్పథ్ఫథ్బథ్భథ్మథ్యథ్రథ్లథ్వథ్శథ్షథ్సథ్హథ్ళథ్క్షథ్ఱ
ద్కద్ఖద్గద్ఘద్ఙద్చద్ఛద్జద్ఝద్ఞద్టద్ఠద్డద్ఢద్ణద్తద్థద్దద్ధద్నద్పద్ఫద్బద్భద్మద్యద్రద్లద్వద్శద్షద్సద్హద్ళద్క్షద్ఱ
ధ్కధ్ఖధ్గధ్ఘధ్ఙధ్చధ్ఛధ్జధ్ఝధ్ఞధ్టధ్ఠధ్డధ్ఢధ్ణధ్తధ్థధ్దధ్ధధ్నధ్పధ్ఫధ్బధ్భధ్మధ్యధ్రధ్లధ్వధ్శధ్షధ్సధ్హధ్ళధ్క్షధ్ఱ
న్కన్ఖన్గన్ఘన్ఙన్చన్ఛన్జన్ఝన్ఞన్టన్ఠన్డన్ఢన్ణన్తన్థన్దన్ధన్నన్పన్ఫన్బన్భన్మన్యన్రన్లన్వన్శన్షన్సన్హన్ళన్క్షన్ఱ
ప్కప్ఖప్గప్ఘప్ఙప్చప్ఛప్జప్ఝప్ఞప్టప్ఠప్డప్ఢప్ణప్తప్థప్దప్ధప్నప్పప్ఫప్బప్భప్మప్యప్రప్లప్వప్శప్షప్సప్హప్ళప్క్షప్ఱ
ఫ్కఫ్ఖఫ్గఫ్ఘఫ్ఙఫ్చఫ్ఛఫ్జఫ్ఝఫ్ఞఫ్టఫ్ఠఫ్డఫ్ఢఫ్ణఫ్తఫ్థఫ్దఫ్ధఫ్నఫ్పఫ్ఫఫ్బఫ్భఫ్మఫ్యఫ్రఫ్లఫ్వఫ్శఫ్షఫ్సఫ్హఫ్ళఫ్క్షఫ్ఱ
బ్కబ్ఖబ్గబ్ఘబ్ఙబ్చబ్ఛబ్జబ్ఝబ్ఞబ్టబ్ఠబ్డబ్ఢబ్ణబ్తబ్థబ్దబ్ధబ్నబ్పబ్ఫబ్బబ్భబ్మబ్యబ్రబ్లబ్వబ్శబ్షబ్సబ్హబ్ళబ్క్షబ్ఱ
భ్కభ్ఖభ్గభ్ఘభ్ఙభ్చభ్ఛభ్జభ్ఝభ్ఞభ్టభ్ఠభ్డభ్ఢభ్ణభ్తభ్థభ్దభ్ధభ్నభ్పభ్ఫభ్బభ్భభ్మభ్యభ్రభ్లభ్వభ్శభ్షభ్సభ్హభ్ళభ్క్షభ్ఱ
మ్కమ్ఖమ్గమ్ఘమ్ఙమ్చమ్ఛమ్జమ్ఝమ్ఞమ్టమ్ఠమ్డమ్ఢమ్ణమ్తమ్థమ్దమ్ధమ్నమ్పమ్ఫమ్బమ్భమ్మమ్యమ్రమ్లమ్వమ్శమ్షమ్సమ్హమ్ళమ్క్షమ్ఱ
య్కయ్ఖయ్గయ్ఘయ్ఙయ్చయ్ఛయ్జయ్ఝయ్ఞయ్టయ్ఠయ్డయ్ఢయ్ణయ్తయ్థయ్దయ్ధయ్నయ్పయ్ఫయ్బయ్భయ్మయ్యయ్రయ్లయ్వయ్శయ్షయ్సయ్హయ్ళయ్క్షయ్ఱ
ర్కర్ఖర్గర్ఘర్ఙర్చర్ఛర్జర్ఝర్ఞర్టర్ఠర్డర్ఢర్ణర్తర్థర్దర్ధర్నర్పర్ఫర్బర్భర్మర్యర్రర్లర్వర్శర్షర్సర్హర్ళర్క్షర్ఱ
ల్కల్ఖల్గల్ఘల్ఙల్చల్ఛల్జల్ఝల్ఞల్టల్ఠల్డల్ఢల్ణల్తల్థల్దల్ధల్నల్పల్ఫల్బల్భల్మల్యల్రల్లల్వల్శల్షల్సల్హల్ళల్క్షల్ఱ
వ్కవ్ఖవ్గవ్ఘవ్ఙవ్చవ్ఛవ్జవ్ఝవ్ఞవ్టవ్ఠవ్డవ్ఢవ్ణవ్తవ్థవ్దవ్ధవ్నవ్పవ్ఫవ్బవ్భవ్మవ్యవ్రవ్లవ్వవ్శవ్షవ్సవ్హవ్ళవ్క్షవ్ఱ
శ్కశ్ఖశ్గశ్ఘశ్ఙశ్చశ్ఛశ్జశ్ఝశ్ఞశ్టశ్ఠశ్డశ్ఢశ్ణశ్తశ్థశ్దశ్ధశ్నశ్పశ్ఫశ్బశ్భశ్మశ్యశ్రశ్లశ్వశ్శశ్షశ్సశ్హశ్ళశ్క్షశ్ఱ
ష్కష్ఖష్గష్ఘష్ఙష్చష్ఛష్జష్ఝష్ఞష్టష్ఠష్డష్ఢష్ణష్తష్థష్దష్ధష్నష్పష్ఫష్బష్భష్మష్యష్రష్లష్వష్శష్షష్సష్హష్ళష్క్షష్ఱ
స్కస్ఖస్గస్ఘస్ఙస్చస్ఛస్జస్ఝస్ఞస్టస్ఠస్డస్ఢస్ణస్తస్థస్దస్ధస్నస్పస్ఫస్బస్భస్మస్యస్రస్లస్వస్శస్షస్సస్హస్ళస్క్షస్ఱ
హ్కహ్ఖహ్గహ్ఘహ్ఙహ్చహ్ఛహ్జహ్ఝహ్ఞహ్టహ్ఠహ్డహ్ఢహ్ణహ్తహ్థహ్దహ్ధహ్నహ్పహ్ఫహ్బహ్భహ్మహ్యహ్రహ్లహ్వహ్శహ్షహ్సహ్హహ్ళహ్క్షహ్ఱ
ళ్కళ్ఖళ్గళ్ఘళ్ఙళ్చళ్ఛళ్జళ్ఝళ్ఞళ్టళ్ఠళ్డళ్ఢళ్ణళ్తళ్థళ్దళ్ధళ్నళ్పళ్ఫళ్బళ్భళ్మళ్యళ్రళ్లళ్వళ్శళ్షళ్సళ్హళ్ళళ్క్షళ్ఱ
క్షక్ష్కక్ష్ఖక్ష్గక్ష్ఘక్ష్ఙక్ష్చక్ష్ఛక్ష్జక్ష్ఝక్ష్ఞక్ష్టక్ష్ఠక్ష్డక్ష్ఢక్ష్ణక్ష్తక్ష్థక్ష్దక్ష్ధక్ష్నక్ష్పక్ష్ఫక్ష్బక్ష్భక్ష్మక్ష్యక్ష్రక్ష్లక్ష్వక్ష్శక్ష్షక్ష్సక్ష్హక్ష్ళక్ష్క్షక్ష్ఱ
ఱ్కఱ్ఖఱ్గఱ్ఘఱ్ఙఱ్చఱ్ఛఱ్జఱ్ఝఱ్ఞఱ్టఱ్ఠఱ్డఱ్ఢఱ్ణఱ్తఱ్థఱ్దఱ్ధఱ్నఱ్పఱ్ఫఱ్బఱ్భఱ్మఱ్యఱ్రఱ్లఱ్వఱ్శఱ్షఱ్సఱ్హఱ్ళఱ్క్షఱ్ఱ

Consonant + Vowel Ligatures[edit]

అఁఅంఅఃNo Vowel
కాకికీకుకూకృకౄకౢకౣకెకేకైకొకోకౌకఁకంకఃక్
ఖాఖిఖీఖుఖూఖృఖౄఖౢఖౣఖెఖేఖైఖొఖోఖౌఖఁఖంఖఃఖ్
గాగిగీగుగూగృగౄగౢగౣగెగేగైగొగోగౌగఁగంగఃగ్
ఘాఘిఘీఘుఘూఘృఘౄఘౢఘౣఘెఘేఘైఘొఘోఘౌఘఁఘంఘఃఘ్
ఙాఙిఙీఙుఙూఙృఙౄఙౢఙౣఙెఙేఙైఙొఙోఙౌఙఁఙంఙఃఙ్
చాచిచీచుచూచృచౄచౢచౣచెచేచైచొచోచౌచఁచంచఃచ్
ఛాఛిఛీఛుఛూఛృఛౄఛౢఛౣఛెఛేఛైఛొఛోఛౌఛఁఛంఛఃఛ్
జాజిజీజుజూజృజౄజౢజౣజెజేజైజొజోజౌజఁజంజఃజ్
ఝాఝిఝీఝుఝూఝృఝౄఝౢఝౣఝెఝేఝైఝొఝోఝౌఝఁఝంఝఃఝ్
ఞాఞిఞీఞుఞూఞృఞౄఞౢఞౣఞెఞేఞైఞొఞోఞౌఞఁఞంఞఃఞ్
టాటిటీటుటూటృటౄటౢటౣటెటేటైటొటోటౌటఁటంటఃట్
ఠాఠిఠీఠుఠూఠృఠౄఠౢఠౣఠెఠేఠైఠొఠోఠౌఠఁఠంఠఃఠ్
డాడిడీడుడూడృడౄడౢడౣడెడేడైడొడోడౌడఁడండఃడ్
ఢాఢిఢీఢుఢూఢృఢౄఢౢఢౣఢెఢేఢైఢొఢోఢౌఢఁఢంఢఃఢ్
ణాణిణీణుణూణృణౄణౢణౣణెణేణైణొణోణౌణఁణంణఃణ్
తాతితీతుతూతృతౄతౢతౣతెతేతైతొతోతౌతఁతంతఃత్
థాథిథీథుథూథృథౄథౢథౣథెథేథైథొథోథౌథఁథంథఃథ్
దాదిదీదుదూదృదౄదౢదౣదెదేదైదొదోదౌదఁదందఃద్
ధాధిధీధుధూధృధౄధౢధౣధెధేధైధొధోధౌధఁధంధఃధ్
నానినీనునూనృనౄనౢనౣనెనేనైనొనోనౌనఁనంనఃన్
పాపిపీపుపూపృపౄపౢపౣపెపేపైపొపోపౌపఁపంపఃప్
ఫాఫిఫీఫుఫూఫృఫౄఫౢఫౣఫెఫేఫైఫొఫోఫౌఫఁఫంఫఃఫ్
బాబిబీబుబూబృబౄబౢబౣబెబేబైబొబోబౌబఁబంబఃబ్
భాభిభీభుభూభృభౄభౢభౣభెభేభైభొభోభౌభఁభంభఃభ్
మామిమీముమూమృమౄమౢమౣమెమేమైమొమోమౌమఁమంమఃమ్
యాయియీయుయూయృయౄయౢయౣయెయేయైయొయోయౌయఁయంయఃయ్
రారిరీరురూరృరౄరౢరౣరెరేరైరొరోరౌరఁరంరఃర్
లాలిలీలులూలృలౄలౢలౣలెలేలైలొలోలౌలఁలంలఃల్
వావివీవువూవృవౄవౢవౣవెవేవైవొవోవౌవఁవంవఃవ్
శాశిశీశుశూశృశౄశౢశౣశెశేశైశొశోశౌశఁశంశఃశ్
షాషిషీషుషూషృషౄషౢషౣషెషేషైషొషోషౌషఁషంషఃష్
సాసిసీసుసూసృసౄసౢసౣసెసేసైసొసోసౌసఁసంసఃస్
హాహిహీహుహూహృహౄహౢహౣహెహేహైహొహోహౌహఁహంహఃహ్
ళాళిళీళుళూళృళౄళౢళౣళెళేళైళొళోళౌళఁళంళఃళ్
క్షక్షాక్షిక్షీక్షుక్షూక్షృక్షౄక్షౢక్షౣక్షెక్షేక్షైక్షొక్షోక్షౌక్షఁక్షంక్షఃక్ష్
ఱాఱిఱీఱుఱూఱృఱౄఱౢఱౣఱెఱేఱైఱొఱోఱౌఱఁఱంఱఃఱ్

Numerals[edit]

0123456789
04142434016116216316

NOTE: ౹, ౺, and ౻ are used also for ​164, ​264, ​364, ​11024, etc. and ౼, ౽, and ౾ are also used for ​1256, ​2256, ​3256, ​14096, etc.[14]

Unicode[edit]

Main article: Telugu (Unicode block)

Telugu script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for Telugu is U+0C00–U+0C7F:

Telugu[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+0C0x
U+0C1x
U+0C2x
U+0C3xి
U+0C4x
U+0C5x
U+0C6x
U+0C7x౿
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

In contrast to a syllabic script such as katakana, where one Unicode code point represents the glyph for one syllable, Telugu combines multiple code points to generate the glyph for one syllable, using complex font rendering rules.[15][16]

iOS character crash bug[edit]

On February 15, 2018 a bug in the iOS operating system was reported that caused iOS devices to crash if a particular Telugu character is displayed.[17] The character is a combination of the characters "జ", "్", "ఞ" and "ా" which looks combined like this "జ్ఞా".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Campbell, George. "Concise Compendium of the World's Languages". Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  2. ^Antiquity of Telugu language and script: http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/20/stories/2007122054820600.htm
  3. ^Ananda Buddha Vihara
  4. ^The Great Stupa at Nagarjunakonda in Southern India-【佛学研究网】 佛教文化网 中国佛教网 中国佛学网 佛教信息网 佛教研究 佛学讲座 禅学讲座 吴言生说禅
  5. ^The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems by Florian Coulmas, p. 228
  6. ^Murthy, K.N.; Rao, G.U. "4.5 Telugu Script"(PDF). 
  7. ^Indiain Epigraphy: a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages, by Richard Solomon, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.40, ISBN 0-19-509984-2
  8. ^Indian Epigraphy by Dineschandra Sircar, Motilal Banarsidass, 1996, p.46, ISBN 81-208-1166-6
  9. ^The Dravidian Languages by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, 2003, Cambridge University Press, pp.78-79, ISBN 0-521-77111-0
  10. ^Comparative Dravidian linguistics: Current perspectives by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-824122-4
  11. ^K. iRaghunath Bhat, http://ignca.gov.in/nl001809.htm
  12. ^Al-biruni. English translation of 'Kitab-ul Hind'. New Delhi: National Book Trust. 
  13. ^"Telugulo Chandovisheshaalu", Page 127 (In Telugu).
  14. ^Nāgārjuna Venna. "Telugu Measures and Arithmetic Marks"(PDF). JTC1/SC2/WG2 N3156. International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved July 29, 2012. 
  15. ^"Developing OpenType Fonts for Telugu Script". February 8, 2018. 
  16. ^"Unicode 4.0.0: South Asian Scripts"(PDF). 
  17. ^"If you receive this message on your iPhone, delete it immediately". The Independent. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-16. 

External links[edit]

India is home to a diverse population playing many different sports across the country. Football is a popular sport in some of the Indian states. The country has won eight Olympic gold medals in field hockey. Kabaddi, an indigenous sport, is popular in rural India, and India has won all the Kabaddi World Cups to date. Several games originated in India including chess, snooker and other regional games. India has won medals in badminton, kabaddi, hockey and many other sports and disciplines. However, cricket is the most popular sport in India.

Recently, different forms of martial arts have also gained a lot of prominence in India. India has hosted and co-hosted several international sporting events, including the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games, the 1985, 1995 and 2016 South Asian Games, the 1987, 1996 and 2011 Cricket World Cup, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 1989, 2013 and 2017 Asian Athletics Championships, the 1982 and 2010 Men's Field hockey World Cup, the 1979, 1987, 1991, 2003, 2010, 2013 and 2017 Asian Wrestling Championships, the 2009 BWF World Championships, the 2004, 2007 and 2016 Kabaddi World Cup (Standard style), the 1980,1992 and 2009 Asian Table Tennis Championships, the 1981 ABC Championship, the 2009 FIBA Asia Championship for Women, the 2005 and 2017 Asian Cycling Championships

The Indian Premier League (IPL) is a premier twenty20 cricket league held every year from 2008. The I-League and Indian Super League are football league tournaments held since 2007 and 2014 respectively, the Pro Wrestling League is a wrestling league held by Wrestling Federation of India since 2015, the International Premier Tennis League is a tennis league held jointly at India with other Asian countries and the Hockey India League is held since 2013.

Major international sporting events annually held in India include the Chennai Open in tennis, the Indian Masters in golf, the India Open since 2008 and Royal Indian Open since 2001 in badminton. From 2011 to 2013, India hosted the Indian Grand Prix Formula 1 race at the Buddh International Circuit, Greater Noida. The National Games of India is a national domestic sports event, which has been held in the country since 1924.

India has recently hosted the 2017 FIBA Women's Asia Cup, the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup, the 2017 ISSF World Cup, the 2016–17 Men's FIH Hockey World League and will host the 2018 Men's Hockey World Cup

Sports League to start in India are the Indian Athletics League and the Ultimate Table Tennis.

History[edit]

Before independence[edit]

The history of sports in India dates back to the Vedic era. Physical culture in ancient India was fuelled by religious rights. The mantra in the Atharvaveda, says, "Duty is in my right hand and the fruits of victory in my left." In terms of an ideal, these words hold the same sentiments as the traditional Olympic Oath: "For the Honour of my Country and the Glory of Sport.[1]" Badminton probably originated in India as a grownup's version of a very old children's game known in England as battledore and shuttlecock, the battledore being a paddle and the shuttlecock a small feathered cork, now usually called a "bird." Games like chess (chaturanga), snakes and ladders, playing cards, originated in India, and it was from here that these games were transmitted to foreign countries, where they were further modernised.

After independence[edit]

India hosted the Asian Games in New Delhi in 1951 and 1982. The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports was initially set up as the Department of Sports in 1982 at the time of organisation of the IX Asian Games in New Delhi. Its name was changed to the Department of Youth Affairs & Sports during celebration of the International Youth Year in 1985.[2] India has also hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events, including the 1951 and the 1982 Asian Games, the 1987 and 1996 Cricket World Cup, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2010 Hockey World Cup, and the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Major international sporting events annually held in India include the Chennai Open, Mumbai Marathon, Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The country co-hosted the 1987, 1996, 2011 Cricket World Cup and the first Indian Grand Prix in 2011.

Administration and funding[edit]

Political responsibility for sport in India is with the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, which is headed by a cabinet minister and managed by National Sport Federations.[3] The only major exception is the BCCI which is the administrative body of Cricket, is not a NSF. Presently there are more than 70 recognised national sports federations (NSF), of which 38 have politicians at the helm.[4]

Sports Authority of India, the field arm of the Ministry, supports and nurtures talent in youth, and provides them with requisite infrastructure, equipment, coaching facilities and competition exposure.[5]Dorabji Tata, with the support of Dr. A.G. Noehren, then director of YMCA, established the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) in 1927. IOA is responsible for the Indian continent's participation in the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games (outdoor, indoor and beach), and South Asian Games. Each Olympic and non-Olympic sport has a federation at the national level.[6]

The selection of the national teams is done by the respective national federations and then recommend to IOA for official sponsorship for participation in the games conducted under the auspices of the International Olympic Committee, Olympic Council of Asia, Commonwealth Games Federation, and SAG. A special feature of the Indian Olympic Association is that the National Federations and the State Olympic Associations are affiliated with and recognised by it. The main task of the State Olympic Associations is to promote the Olympic sport and to ensure co-ordination among the State Sports Associations. In 2010–11, the total budget for sports and physical education schemes is ₹31,177 million (US$480 million).[7]Hockey, in which India has an impressive record with eight Olympic gold medals, is said to be the national sport.[8] The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are India's highest awards for achievement in sports, while the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching.

India has been criticised for neglecting women in sports, as depicted in the film "Chak De! India", where women's sports associations are under-sponsored and out of funds.

International sports events held in India[edit]

Following is a list of international sports events held in India:

SportEvent nameYear/DateVenue
Multi-sport eventAsian Games1951New Delhi
Field hockeyField Hockey World Cup1982BHA Stadium, Bombay
Multi-sport eventAsian Games1982New Delhi
Cricket (ODI)Cricket World Cup1987Multiple venues
Multi-sport eventSouth Asian Games1987Kolkata
Multi-sport eventSouth Asian Games1995Chennai
Cricket (ODI)Cricket World Cup1996Multiple Venues
TennisChennai Open1996–SDAT Tennis Stadium, Chennai
Multi-sport eventAfro-Asian Games2003Hyderabad
Field hockeyMen's Hockey Champions Trophy2007Chennai
FootballAFC Challenge Cup2008Ambedkar Stadium, New Delhi

Gachibowli Athletic Stadium, Hyderabad

Multi-sport eventCommonwealth Youth Games2008Pune
Field hockeyField Hockey World Cup2010Dhyan Chand National Stadium, New Delhi
Multi-sport eventCommonwealth Games2010Delhi
Cricket (ODI)Cricket World Cup2011Multiple Venues
Field hockeyMen's Hockey Champions Trophy2011New Delhi
Multi-sport eventSouth Asian Winter Games2011Dehradun and Auli
Motor sportsFormula One (2011 season)Indian Grand Prix (30 October 2011)Buddh International Circuit, Greater Noida
Field hockey Olympic Field Hockey Qualification2012 Summer Olympics (London)
Qualification Tournament 1
New Delhi
Motor sportsFormula One (2012 season)Indian Grand Prix (28 October 2012)Buddh International Circuit, Greater Noida
Cricket (ODI)Women's Cricket World Cup2013Multiple Venues
Multi-sport eventSouth Asian Games2013Delhi
Field HockeyFIH Men's Hockey World League (2012–13 season)2013 Round 2 (Delhi leg)Dhyan Chand National Stadium, New Delhi
FIH Women's Hockey World League (2012–13 season)2013 Round 2 (Delhi leg)
Motor sportsFormula One (2013 season)Indian Grand Prix (27 October 2013)Buddh International Circuit, Greater Noida
Superbike World Championship17 November 2013 (Cancelled)
FIH Men's Hockey World League (2012–13 season)2013 Round 4 (Final round)Dhyan Chand National Stadium, New Delhi
Field hockeyMen's Hockey Champions Trophy2014Kalinga Stadium, Bhubaneshwar
Multi-sport eventLusophony Games2014Goa
TennisDavis Cup World Group Play-offs2014KSLTA Tennis Stadium, Bangalore
FIH Men's Hockey World League (2014–15 season)2015 Round 2Dhyan Chand National Stadium, New Delhi
FIH Men's Hockey World League (2014–15 season)2015 Round 4 (Final round)Raipur
Cricket (T20)ICC World Twenty202016Multiple Venues
Cricket (T20)2016 ICC Women's World Twenty202016Multiple Venues
Multi-sport event2016 South Asian Games2016Guwahati and Shillong
Wrestling2017 Asian Wrestling Championships2017Indira Gandhi Sports Complex, New Delhi
Cycling2017 Asian Cycling Championships2017Indira Gandhi Arena, New Delhi
Badminton2017 India Super Series2017Siri Fort Indoor Stadium, New Delhi
Squash2017 Men's Asian Individual Squash Championships2017Express Avenue Mall, Chennai
Shooting2017 ISSF World Cup2017New Delhi
Table TennisIndia Open (table tennis)2017Thyagaraj Sports Complex, New Delhi
FootballFIFA U-17 World Cup2017Multiple Venues
BasketballFIBA Asia Women's Cup2017Banglore
Basketball2017 FIBA Under-16 Women's Asian Championship2017Banglore
BoxingAIBA Women's Youth World Championships2017India
GolfIndian Open (golf)2017New Delhi
Multi-sport event2017 Asian Athletics Championships2017Kalinga Stadium, Bhubaneswar
FIH Men's Hockey World League (2016–17 season)2017 Round 4 (Final round)TBA
Field hockeyField Hockey World Cup2018Kalinga Stadium, Bhubaneshwar
Cricket (ODI)Cricket World Cup2023Multiple Venues

India at major international sports events[edit]

Olympics[edit]

Main article: India at the Olympics

A single athlete, Norman Pritchard, represented India in the 1900 Olympics, winning two silver medals. India sent its first national team to the Olympics in 1920, and has participated in every Summer Olympic Games ever since. India has also competed at several Winter Olympic Games since 1964.

India has won a total of 26 Olympic medals. India won its first gold medal in men's field hockey in the 1928 Olympic Games. Abhinav Bindra became the first Indian to win an individual gold medal at the Olympic Games, and India's first gold medal since 1980, when the men's field hockey team won the gold.[9][10]

India has won very few Olympic medals, despite a population exceeding one billion, around half of them under the age of 25. Numerous explanations have been offered for the dearth, including poverty, malnutrition, widespread vegetarianism, neglected infrastructure, the lack of sponsorship, the theft of money and equipment, political corruption, institutional disorganisation, social immobility, the predominance of cricket, and other cultural factors.[11][12][13][14]

According to several informal statistics, India is the country with the lowest number of total Olympic medals per capita (out of those countries which have won at least one medal).[15][16] In the Winter Olympic Games, India has seen four consecutive representations–Nagano (Japan, 1998), Salt Lake City (Utah, USA, 2002), Turin (Italy, 2006), and Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada, 2010). Shiva Keshavan, Asian Champion in luge represented India in all four winter games.

Commonwealth Games[edit]

Main article: India at the Commonwealth Games

India has competed in fourteen of the eighteen previous Commonwealth Games; starting at the second Games in 1934 hosted the games one time. India hosted the Games in 2010, at Delhi. India is the fourth most successful country with a total of 436 medals including 156 gold medals.

Asian Games[edit]

Main article: India at the Asian Games

India hosted the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 at New Delhi. India is the 6th most successful country winning 602 medals including 139 gold. India has won the gold medal in Kabbadi ever since its inception.

The National Games of India[edit]

Main article: National Games of India

The National Games of India is a sporting event held in India. It comprises various disciplines in which sportsmen from the different states of India participate against each other. The country's first few Olympic Games, now christened as National Games

Shooting

Shooting is an important Olympic sport in India. Of India's 26 Olympic medals, 4 have come from Shooting including a Gold by Abhinav Bindra in the 2008 Olympics. Indian shooters who have excelled at the world stage include Abhinav Bindra, Jitu Rai, Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore, Vijay Kumar, Gagan Narang, Apurvi Chandela, Ronjan Sodhi and Anjali Bhagwat.

The Indian shooting contingent for the 2012 London was one of the largest to date. There were a total of 11 shooters including 4 female shooters. India's first medal in the 2012 Olympics was when Gagan Narang won the bronze in the 10m Air Rifle event. This was the same event in which Abhinav Bindra won India's first individual gold medal in the 2008 Summer Olympics Beijing. The second medal came from the unheralded army man Vijay Kumar when he won the silver in the 25m rapid fire pistol event after finishing 4th in the qualification rounds. He had to fend off some tough competition from the third placed Chinese Ding Feng.

A notable performance was made by Joydeep Karmakar who finished 4th in the 50m rifle prone event. A strong medal prospect Ronjan Sodhi who is an Asian Games gold medallist, however crashed out in the qualification rounds of the Double trap event.

Olympic sports[edit]

Field Hockey[edit]

Main article: Field Hockey in India

Field Hockey is a popular sport in India. Until the mid-1970s, India dominated international field hockey, winning eight Olympic gold medals and won the men's Hockey World Cup held in 1975. Since then, barring a gold medal in the 1980 Olympics, India's performance in field hockey has been dismal, with other hockey-playing nations such as Australia, Netherlands and Germany improving their standards and catching up with India. Its decline is also due to the change in rules of the game, introduction of artificial turf, and internal politics in Indian field hockey bodies. The popularity of field hockey has also declined massively parallel to the decline of the Indian hockey team. In recent years, the standard of Indian hockey has gone from bad to worse, with the Indian hockey team not qualifying for the 2008 Olympics and finishing last in the 2012 Olympics. Currently, the Indian team is 5th in the rankings of the Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon (FIH, English:International Hockey Federation), the international governing body of field hockey and indoor field hockey.[17]

India has hosted two Hockey World Cups–one in 1982 in Mumbai, and another in 2010 in Delhi, where they finished fifth and eighth respectively. India also hosted the annual Hockey Champions Trophy in 1996, 2005 and 2014. Until 2008, the Indian Hockey Federation (IHF) was the apex body for hockey in the country. However, following revelations of corruption and other scandals in the IHF, the federation was dissolved and de-recognised, and a new apex body for Indian hockey called Hockey India (HI) was formed on 20 May 2009, with support from the IOA and former hockey players. HI, recognised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH), has the sole mandate to govern and conduct all activities for both men's and women's field hockey in India. Although the IHF was reinstated in 2010,[18] it is not recognised by the FIH. The IHF conducts a franchise-based tournament called World Series Hockey (WSH), with its first season conducted in 2012. However, it is not approved by HI or the FIH.

HI also conducts a franchise-based tournament called the Hockey India League (HIL). Its first season was in 2013 and is inspired from the Board of Control for Cricket in India's (BCCI's) highly successful Indian Premier League. The tournament is recognised by the FIH, which has also decided to provide a 30-day window for the forthcoming seasons so that all top players can participate.

[edit]

Main article: Football in India

See also: All India Football Federation, India national football team, and India women's national football team

Football was introduced to India during the British colonial period. Although India has never been represented in any FIFA World Cup, it did qualify in 1950, though it did not take part, as they were not allowed to play barefoot.[19] India was an Asian powerhouse in football in the 1950s and 1960s. During this golden era, India created history as the first Asian team to reach semi-finals in an Olympic football tournament in 1956 Summer Olympics at Melbourne and Neville D'Souza became the first Asian and Indian to score a hat-trick (record remains unbeaten) in an Olympic match.[20][21] India also finished as runners-up in the 1964 AFC Asian Cup. But later on, the standard of football started to decline due to lack of professionalism and fitness culture. India currently ranks 97th in the FIFA rankings as of 10 August 2017.[22]

Football is, nevertheless, widely popular both as a spectator sport, and as a participation sport in some parts of the country such as Kerala, West Bengal, Goa and the Northeast. The India national football team represents India in all FIFA tournaments. The Yuva Bharati Krirangan of Kolkata was the second largest non-auto racing stadium in the world.

In June 1937, at the Army Headquarters, Shimla, the All India Football Federation (AIFF) was formed at a meeting of the representatives of football associations of six regions where the game was very popular in those days. It is the governing body for football in India. Domestic competitions for men's football include the Indian Super League, I-League, I-League 2nd Division in the Indian League System and the annual knock-out style Federation Cup. For women's football the India women's football championship. However, it is European football, such as the English Premier League, Spanish La Liga, and the UEFA Champions League, which are very popular among Indian football fans, especially in metropolitan cities.

The 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup will be the 17th tournament of the FIFA U-17 World Cup. FIFA revealed on 5 December 2013 (as part of their Executive Committee meets in Salvador, Brazil), that India will be the host. This will be the first time India will host an international football competition at world level.[23] To help increase interest in youth football in advance of the 2017 U-17 World Cup, India has launched the Mission XI Million programme.

Tennis[edit]

Main article: Tennis in India

See also: All India Tennis Association

Tennis is a sport among Indians in urban areas. Tennis has gained popularity after the exploits of Vijay Amritraj. India's fortunes in Grand Slam singles have been unimpressive, although Leander Paes won a singles bronze medal at the 1996 Olympics. Since the late 1990s India has had impressive results in Grand Slam doubles, Leander Paes and Mahesh Bhupathi have won many men's doubles and mixed doubles Grand Slam titles. Sania Mirza is the most notable Indian woman tennis player, having won a WTA title and breaking into the Top 30 WTA rankings, also winning three Grand Slam doubles events, the first at Wimbledon in 2015. On the men's side, young Somdev Devvarman and Yuki Bhambri are flying India's flag on the ATP Tour. Yuki was the Australian Open junior singles champion in 2009. Rohan Bopanna has won two mixed doubles titles.

Badminton[edit]

Main article: Badminton in India

Badminton is played widely in India and it is one of the most popular sports in India. Badminton's popularity has grown in these years. Indian shuttler Saina Nehwal has been ranked in the top-10 rankings since 2010, peaking at no. 1 in 2015.,[24] and has been named the Most Promising Player of 2008 by the Badminton World Federation. The most successful doubles player from India is Jwala Gutta, who is the only Indian to have been ranked in the top-10 of two categories. She peaked at no. 6 with Valiyaveetil Diju in mixed doubles and at no. 10 with Ashwini Ponnappa in women's doubles.[25] Other successful players include P.V. Sindhu, Aparna Popat, Prakash Padukone, Pullela Gopichand, Syed Modi, Chetan Anand, Parupalli Kashyap, Prannoy Kumar and K. Srikanth and also don't forget Saina Nehwal.

Padukone and Gopichand, both won the All England Open in 1980 and 2001 respectively making them the only Indians to ever win the prestigious title. At the 2012 London Olympic Games, Nehwal won the bronze medal in the individual women's competition, the first for the country. India has won medals at the BWF World Championships as well, with Padukone winning in 1982. The doubles pairing of Gutta and Ponnappa became the first women to win the medal when they won the bronze in 2011.[26] Sindhu won consecutive medals at 2013 and 2014 editions. Nehwal won a silver at 2015 Championships. Badminton is a fast growing sport in India.[27]

Basketball[edit]

The Indian Hockey team at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, later going on to defeat Germany 8–1 in the final.
Jwala Gutta, the most successful doubles player from India.

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